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Physics Chemistry Maths Biology

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Class-XI Instructors

Mr. Sajid Hussain, Physics

Mr. Sajid Hussain

Mr. Sajid Hussain is the, HOD Physics at Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon. Take a look at any one of his lectures..

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Mr. Shachindra Sharma, Chemistry

Mr. Shachindra Sharma

Mr. Shachindra Sharma (M.Sc. Delhi University, B.Ed. and CSIR Fellow) is one of the most popular, innovative ..

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Mr. S C Goel, Math

Mr. S C Goel

Mr. S.C. Goel is the former principal and HOD, Maths, at Air Force Bal Bharati School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi and he has over 30 years..

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Mrs. Poonam Jubbal, Biology

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal is a highly trained and experienced educationist in the field of Biology with a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Zoology and M.Ed..

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Mr. Sajid Hussain

Mr. Sajid Hussain is the HOD Physics at Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon. Take a look at any one of his lectures from any physics chapter of your choice. You will realize that there is no need to be afraid of Physics. He has made Physics an easy subject for numerous students, who have performed extremely well in the Board exams and also captured seats in top engineering and medical colleges throughout India. Mr. Sajid Hussain can do the same for you. He is a M.Sc. (Physics) graduate from AMU with 15 years of teaching experience and has been associated with top notch schools throughout his career. At Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, his students have consistently graduated with top marks in Physics. Some of his students travel hundreds of kilometers just to be tutored by him. Mr. Sajid Hussain has achieved these extraordinary results by simplifying what others seem to believe as difficult concepts to grasp. Take a look at a number of his sample lessons to see how he makes Physics easy for a student to learn.

Come, experience effortless learning of Physics...- Mr. Sajid Hussain,HOD Physics, Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon.

Mr. Shachindra Sharma

Mr. Shachindra Sharma (M.Sc. Delhi University, B.Ed. and CSIR Fellow) is one of the most popular, innovative and result oriented Chemistry teacher. He is working as a senior faculty (Dy. HOD) of Chemistry at Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram; India's Premier institution. For the last 18 years he has taught thousands of students in India and abroad. His simple but unique method of teaching has made Chemistry an easy to understand and high scoring subject. His students have been top achievers not only in the Board exams but also in many of the competitive tests conducted by top Engineering, Medical and other famous Universities of the world. Mr. Sharma's long cherished dream of making quality teaching available to the needy students is now a realty with TopChalks.com. He has prepared each lesson carefully, leisurely over a long period of time without any time pressure or constraints. At TopChalks.com his lessons facilitate the students to learn Chemistry in the most relaxed atmosphere. These lessons are available online, 24 x 7, for the students to use at their discretion.

If it has done wonders for thousands of students, why not YOU...- Shachindra Sharma,Dy. HOD, Chemistry, Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram

Mr. S C Goel

Mr. S.C. Goel is the former principal and HOD, Maths, at Air Force Bal Bharti School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi and he has over 30 years of experience teaching Maths. He has made his students excel in Maths by relating it to analogies and events in day to day life. He is proud of the fact that his students are not only super achievers in Board Exams but many of them are also rankers in competitive exams such as IIT-JEE. In his course at TopChalks.com, Mr. Goel has extensively covered every concept of XII Board Maths and regardless of where the student is in his/her preparation, Mr. Goel's lessons will assist the student in boosting his/her performance and confidence to significantly higher level. He has explained the concepts, problems and solutions in a number of different ways, in order to ensure that every level of student benefits from his teaching. The student can be assured that he/she will be extremely well prepared to score high on the XII Board Maths exam.

Let's make Math simpler...- S. C. Goel,Former-Principal, Air Force Bal Bharti School - New Delhi

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal is a highly trained and experienced educationist in the field of Biology with a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Zoology and M.Ed. in education. She was a topper at Hindu College in her B.Sc. and M.Sc. exams with a 7th rank in Delhi University in the B.Sc. exam. Teaching Biology is her passion. She has taught Biology for the last 25 years at top schools like Delhi Public School and other premier institutes like Aakash. Many of her students today are accomplished Doctors, Scientists and Scholars. She has perfected a way to help students learn Biology in a systematic way, one that produces excellent results. Take a look at her sample lessons to see for yourself why she is such a sought after instructor.

Decipher the DNA of Biology...- Poonam Jubbal,Founder Teacher, DPS Faridabad - NCR

CLASS-XI DEMOS

PHYSICS | By Mr. Sajid Hussain, DPS Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon

CHEMISTRY | By Mr. Sharma, DPS R. K. Puram, New Delhi

MATHS | By Mr.Goel, Air Force Bal Bharati School, New Delhi

BIOLOGY | By Ms. Poonam Jubbal , DPS , Faridabad

Class-XI Course Details


Subject No. of Chapters No. of Lectures Taught Solved Problems No. of Hours
Physics 15 670 380 70
Chemistry 13 691 445 80
Maths 15 456 1140 85
Biology 22 875 535 80
PCM-Combo 43 1817 1965 235

Class-XI Syllabus
Physical World
Science, Scientific methods
Physics, Branches of physics, Relations b/w physics and technology
Some great physicists and their contributions, Some important discoveries
Fundamental forces in nature, Gravitational forces, Electromagnetic forces, Strong nuclear forces, Weak nuclear forces and their properties, Relative strength of the 4 types of basic forces
Law of conservation of energy, Law of conservation of linear momentum, Law of conservation of angular momentum, Law of conservation of charge
Units and Measurements
Measurement, Unit of quantity, Physical quantities, Types of units, Choice of a standard unit
Need For Measurement
C.G.S., F.P.S. and M.K.S. and S.I. Systems, Basic quantities and their units, Supplementary quantities and their units, Solid angle, Advantages of  S.I.
Parallax Method , Measurement of the distance of a planet from earth by Parallax Method , Measurement of the distance of a star from earth by Parallax Method
Measurement of size of an astronomical object, Problems
Measurement of Mass
Error, Accuracy, Precision, Examples and Problems
Types of errors, Random error, Systematic error, Instrumental error, Imperfection in experimental technique, Personal error, Least count
Calculation of absolute error, relative error and percentage error and a problem
Combination of Errors, Rules for sum and difference, Rules for product and quotient, rule for power to a physical quantity
Questions on Error 
Significant Figures and examples, Rules for counting the number of significant figures, Problems
Significant Figures In Calculation and rules for them, Rounding off the uncertain digits
Questions based On Significant Figures
Dimensions of a Physical Quqntity,Dimensional formulae,Dimensional equation
Checking the correctness, Principle of homogeneity, , Questions on checking correctness, Questions on deriving relationship among the physical quantities
Conversion of Units, Questions
Limitation of Dimensions, Types of quantities
Questions on Dimensional Analysis
Objective Questions
Motion in a Straight Line
Motion, Idea of point object, Statics, Kinamatics, Dynamics
Position, Frame of reference, One, two and three dimensional motion, Distance versus displacement, Stationary object, Uniform motion
Average velocity , Average speed, Slope of position-time graph and a problem
Questions on average velocity and average speed
Instantaneous Velocity and Speed and their graphical representation
Acceleration, Average acceleration, Instantaneous acceleration, Retardation, Graphical representation and problems
Area under v-t graph and sample questions
Equations for uniformly accelerated motion by graphical method
Questions on graphs
Questions on equations of motion
Question based on motion under gravity
Differentiation, Geometrical meaning of derivative of a function, Formulae of differentiation
Questions on differentiation
Integration, Geometrical meaning of integration, Formulae of integrals
Questions on integration
Derivations of Equations of motion using integration 
Equation for distance covered in particular sec., questions
Differences between uniform motion and non uniform motion, problems
Definition and expression of relative velocity
Questions on relative velocity
Objective questions
Motion in a Plane
Introduction of motion in a plane, vector algebra, types of vectors
Difference between Scalars and Vectors, Position vector, Displacement vector and one problem
Types of Vectors, Equal vectors, Negative vectors, Co-initial, Collinear, Coplanar and Unit vectors
Addition of two vectors , Triangle method, Parallelogram method, Properties of vector addition
Subtraction of Vectors and questions
Multiplication of vector by real number and null vector, physical meaning of zero vector
Resolution of vectors, Rectangular components of a vector, 
Vector addition - Analytical method, and one problem
Analytical method - Subtraction of vector and two problems
Questions on parallelogram law of vectors
Questions on resolution of vectors
Law of Sines and Lamis theorem
Questions on Lamis Theorem
Position Vector and displacement vector in two dimensional motion and one problem
Velocity Vector and acceleration in two dimensional motion, velocity in component form, acceleration
Questions on velocity and acceleration in 2d and 3d
Motion in a plane with constant acceleration
Relative velocity in two dimensions , Relative velocity of rain with respect to a moving man and a problem
Questions on relative velocity
Questions on boat crossing the river, Questions on man crossing the river
Projectile motion, Equation of trajectory
Time of Flight, Horizontal range and Maximum Height of Projectile
Horizontal Projection from certain height,  Path Equation, Touch Down Time , Final Velocity
Questions on Projectile Motion
Questions on Horizontal Projection
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Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity, 2 problems
Derivation of centripetal acceleration
Questions on Circular Motion
Objective Questions
Laws of Motion
Introduction: Aristotle's fallacy, Galileo's experiment
Galileos Law of Inertia
Newtons First Law of Motion and few problems
Newtons Second Law of Motion, momentum and Impulse
Application of concept of Impulse and problems
Questions on Newtons Second Law
Questions based on Impulse
Newtons Third Law of Motion, important points about third law
Illustrations of Newtons third law(5 illustrations)
Conservation of momentum - Proof and its applications
Second law is the real law of motion and proof of third law from conservation of momentum
Questions on conservation of momentum
Apparent weight of a man in a lift and 2 problems
Motion of connected bodies
Mass pulley system
Mass pulley system inclined plane
Questions on mass pulley system
Equilibrium of a Particle and a problem
Common forces in mechanics
Friction, origin of Friction, types of Friction, laws of limiting friction
Angle of friction and Angle of Repose
Work done on rough horizontal surface, Acceleration in a body sliding down on a rough inclined plane, Work done in moving a body up on a rough inclined plane, Advantages and disadvantages of friction
Questions on Friction 
Questions on angle of friction and angle of repose
Questions on motion on rough inclined plane
Circular motion, Centripetal force, Centrifugal force, Differences b/w centripetal and centrifugal forces
Motion of a vehicle on round track
Questions on circular motion and centripetal force
Objective Questions
Work Energy and Power
Introduction : Work, Power and Energy
Scalar Product, Properties of dot product and Example of dot product
Questions on Scalar Product
Work, types of work and S.I. units of work
Questions on Work
Notion of work, kinetic energy and 2 problems
Kinetic energy and 3 questions on kinetic energy
Work done by variable force, work done by spring force
Questions on work done by variable force
Work energy theorem for variable force and problems
Questions on work energy theorem
The concept of potential energy, relation b/w force and energy
Conservative and Nonconservative forces: Properties and examples
Conservation of mechanical energy and case of freely falling body
Vertical circular motion and problem
Questions on conservation of mechanical energy
Potential energy of a spring: Spring force is a conservative force
Questions on potential energy of a spring 
Different forms of energy, equivalence of mass and energy, principle of conservation of energy
Power, Instantaneous power, units of power: kWh, Example
Questions on Power 
Collision,Types of collisions, Co-efficient of restituition and questions
Elastic collision in one dimension
Elastic collision in two dimensions and questions
Questions on collision 
Objective Questions 
System of Particles and Rotational Motion
Introduction of system of particles and rotational motion
Center of mass, Position vector of center of mass of two particle system, C.M. for a system of n particles
Motion of center of mass, Linear momentum of a system of particles, Conservation of momentum of center of mass
Questions on center of mass 
Vector product of vectors, Right hand screw rule, Right hand thumb rule, Properties of vector products 
Questions on vector products 
Angular velocity and angular acceleration 
Equations of rotational motion
Questions on equations of rotational motion 
Moment of force(torque)
Physical meaning of torque and one question
Angular momentum and its conservation, Relation between torque and angular momentum
Geometrical significance of angular momentum 
Questions on torque and angular momentum 
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, couple
Moment of inertia, Physical significance of moment of inertia , Factors on which M.I. depends
Questions on moment of inertia 
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Rotational kinetic energy and radius of gyration
Questions on rotational kinetic energy 
Relation between moment of inertia and angular momentum and between torque and moment of inertia
Theorem of parallel axes and problems
Questions on parallel axes theorem 
Theorem of perpendicular axes and problem
Questions on perpendicular axes theorem 
Dynamics of rotational motion, Rotational work done, Rotational power
Comparison of translational and rotational motion 
Conservation of angular momentum and its example 
Questions on conservation of angular momentum 
A body rolling without slipping on inclined plane 
Objective Questions 
Gravitation
Introduction: Geocentric theory, Heliocentric theory, Gravitation, gravity
Keplers laws of planetary motion
Deduction of Keplers third law and second law
Questions on keplers laws
Newtons law of gravitation, Deduction of Newtons law of gravitation from keplers laws
The gravitational constant, Dimensional formula of G, Cavendish experiments to find value of G
Questions on gravitational force 
Acceleration due to gravity , relation in g and G, variation in g due to shape of the earth
Questions on acceleration due to gravity
Variation in g with height and depth and its Problems
Gravitational field intensity, gravitational potential and its Problems
Gravitational potential energy and its Problems
Escape velocity, expression of escape velocity and its Problems
Orbital velocity of satellite and its Problems
Kinetic energy, potential energy , total energy of satellite and a problem
Geostationary satellite and polar satellite
Objective Questions 
Mechanical Properties of Solids
Introduction of Mechanical Properties of Solids
Elastic behavior of solid, Hooke's law
Stress: three types of stress, Strain: Three types of strain
Hooke's Law: Elastic limit: Experimental verification of hooke's Law and one problem
Stress - Strain curve, proportional limit, Brittle, Ductile 
Questions on stress strain graph 
Modulus of elasticity: Youngs modulus: Bulk modulus: Shear modulus 
Elastic potential energy per unit volume and one problem
Elastic properties and selection of materials 
Questions on stress and strain 
Questions on youngs modulus 
Questions on bulk modulus 
Questions on shear modulus 
Conceptual questions on elasticity 
Applications of elastic behavior of materials, Elastic after effect, Elastic fatigue
Objective Questions 
Mechanical Properties of Fluids
Introduction: Fluids and their properties
Fluid pressure, Density, Relative density
Pascals law , hydrostatic pressure and one problem
Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift, Hydraulic brakes
Modified Pascal's Law under gravity, Hydrostatic paradox
Atmospheric pressure and mercury barometer, Units of pressure, Manometer
Questions on hydrostatic pressure 
Questions on Pascal's Law 
Surface tension, Molecular theory of surface tension, Shape of the liquid drop is spherical 
Surface energy, Relation between surface tension and surface energy
Questions on surface tension and surface energy 
Shape of water meniscus and mercury meniscus in a glass tube
Pressure difference due to spherical meniscus
Excess pressure inside a liquid drop, Excess pressure inside soap bubble and air bubble
Questions on excess pressure 
Angle of contact and capillarity
Rise of liquid in a capillary ascent formula
Questions on ascent formula 
Viscosity, Newtons formula of viscous flow, Coefficient of viscosity
Poiseuille's formula, Stoke's Law
Terminal velocity - Definition and derivation 
Questions on terminal velocity and Stoke's Law 
Streamline flow, Laminar flow, Turbulent flow, Critical velocity and Reynolds Number
Equation of continuity: Energy of flowing fluid 
Statement of Bernoullis theorem, Pressure head, Velocity head, Gravitation head, Limitations 
Proof of Bernoulli's theorem
Applications of Bernoulli's theorem(4 applications)
Questions on equation of continuity and bernoulli's theorem 
Venturimeter and Torricelli's theorem
Questions on Venturimeter and Torricelli's theorem 
Objective Questions
Thermal Properties of Matter
Introduction of Thermal Properties of Matter
Heat, Temperature, Scales for measuring temperature 
Thermal Expansion, Linear expansion, Area expansion, Volume expansion
Relation between coefficient of expansions
Specific heat, Molar specific heat, Cp and Cv, Principle of calorimetry 
Questions on specific heat and calorimetry
Three phases of substances, Melting process, Vaporisation, Sublimation, Latent heat
Questions on Latent heat 
Transfer of heat by conduction, convection and radiation, Properties of thermal radiations 
Thermal conductivity, Co-efficient of thermal conductivity
Questions on thermal conductivity 
Newton's Law of cooling 
Objective Questions 
Thermodynamics
Introduction of Modern concept of heat and definition of thermodynamics  
Thermal equilibrium and zeroth law of thermodynamics
Thermodynamic System, Open system, Closed system, Isolated system, Thermodynamic variables, Equation of state 
Kinds of thermodynamic processes and their P-V digram , Differences b/w isothermal and adiabatic process
Work done in a thermodynamic process, Work done in isobaric and isochoric process
Work done in isothermal and adiabatic processes
Questions on work done in isothermal and adiabatic process 
Internal energy and first law of Thermodynamics
Applications of First Law of thermodynamics 
Relation between Cp and Cv (Mayer's formula)
Relation between pressure and volume for adiabatic process(Poisson's Law)
Questions on First Law of thermodynamics 
Limitations of First Law of thermodynamics , Second Law of thermodynamics 
Cyclic process, Work done in a cyclic process, Reversible and irreversible processes 
Questions on work done in a cyclic process 
Heat engine, Efficiency of Heat Engine, Ideal heat Engine, Refrigerator, Coefficient of performance of refrigerator
Carnot heat engine: Construction and working 
Efficiency of Carnot engine 
Questions on efficiency of engine 
Objective Questions 
Kinetic Theory
Introduction of Kinetic Theory of gases, molecular nature of matter 
Ideal gas, Ideal gas equation, Gas constant R
Assumptions of kinetic theory of gases
Expression for pressure due to an ideal gas
Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas
Questions on mean translational kinetic energy of molecules
Kinetic interpretation of temperature and absolute zero
Derivation of gas laws from kinetic theory (Boyle's law, Charle's law, Avogadro's law)
Questions on Gas Laws 
Mean speed and root mean square speed of gas molecules and one problem
Questions on root mean square speed 
Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy
Calculation of specific heats Cp and Cv for monatomic, di atomic and tri atomic gases
Concept of mean free path and avogadros number
Objective Questions 
Oscillations
Introduction : Rectilinear motion, Periodic motion, Angular speed, Amplitude and Oscillatory motion
Periodic motion and Oscillatory motion and graphical representation of periodic motion
Simple Harmonic motion: Characteristics and  Graphical representation 
Definitions related to periodic motion and SHM, Phase and Phase difference 
Simple harmonic motion as a projection of a uniform circular motion, Geometrical interpretation
Displacement time equation of SHM
Questions on equation of SHM 
Velocity and Acceleration in SHM, Acceleration-time relation in SHM
Questions on velocity and acceleration in SHM 
Energy in SHM  (Kinetic energy: Potential energy and total enenrgy), Differential equation of SHM
Questions on energy in SHM 
Force Law for SHM
Simple pendulum and time period of simple pendulum 
Questions on time period of simple pendulum 
Time period of mass spring system 
Questions on vertical oscillations of spring 
Questions based on spring constant 
Oscillations of spring combinations(3 cases)
Questions on combination of spring 
Oscillations of floating cylinder 
Oscillations of liquid in a U tube
Body dropped in a hole across diameter of earth executes SHM and its time period
Damped and Undamped Oscillations 
Free, Forced and Resonant Oscillations 
Objective Questions 
Waves
Introduction: Wave motion, Types of waves
Transverse and longitudinal waves and the differences b/w them
Terms related to wave motion, Relation b/w velocity of wave, frequency and wavelength
Speed of transverse waves in a string , Propagation of transverse wave
Questions on transverse waves 
Speed of sound waves , speed of longitudinal waves
Laplaces correction for velocity of sound in gases
Effect of Pressure, Temperature, humidity and density on velocity of sound in gases 
Questions on speed of sound waves 
Displacement - time relations for travelling wave or progressive wave, phase
Questions on equation of travelling wave 
Reflection of waves and superposition of waves, superposition
Standing waves or stationary waves, Characteristic of standing waves
Equation of stationary waves, Differences between traveling wave and standing wave 
Standing wave in a string analytical treatment 
Questions on normal modes of vibration of strings 
Standing waves in closed and open organ pipe
Questions on organ pipes 
Beats and formation of beats graphically
Expression of beat frequency
Questions on beats 
Dopplers effect in sound, case1 : when source is in motion, case2: when observer is in motion
Dopplers effect in sound: case3 : when both (source and observer )are in motion
Questions on Dopplers effect 
Objective Questions
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Introduction and importance of chemistry
Nature and classification of matter
Compounds, mixtures, difference between compounds and mixtures
Laws of chemical combinations, laws of conservation of mass, law of definite and mulitiple proportions 
Gay lussac's law of gaseous volumes, avagadro law and its numericals
Daltonns Atomic Theory
Atomic mass, average atomic mass, molecular and formula mass
Mole Concept and its numericals
Percentage composition, Examples and Numericals and its numericals
Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula
Calculation of Empirical and Molecular Formula
Solutions, solute and solvents, concentration 
Mass percentage, mass percent, volume percent, strength, molarity, dilution formula 
Molality, parts per million, mole fraction  and its numericals
Chemical equation, balancing of chemical equation
Stoichiometry calculations, limiting reagent and its numericals
Problems and Objective Questions
Structure of Atom
Introduction on structure of atoms
Ddiscovery of electron,cathode rays and its properties, charge on electron and mass of electron 
Anode rays and discovery of protons
Thomson model of atom
Rutherfords Nuclear model, drawbacks and discovery of neutrons
Atomic and mass number, isotopes and isobars
Calculations of Number of Electrons and examples
Developments leading to the bohr's model of atom, wave nature of elecromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic spectrum (visible spectrum)
Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation, planck's quantum theorey , photoelectric effect
Particle nature of Electromagnetic Radiation- Plancks Quantum Theory continued
Atomic spectra, emission and absorption spectrum, line spectrum of hydrogen
Bohrs model for hydrogen atom
Successes of Bohrs model 
de-broglie equation and its Numericals
Heisenbergs uncertainty Principle and significance
Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom and schrodinger wave equation
Difference between orbit and orbital
Quantum numbers and its Numericals
Shapes of atomic orbitals
Energy level diagrams for hydrogen and multi electron atom
Filling of orbitals in atom, aufbau, pauli exclusions and hunds rule
Electronic Configurations of Atoms
Electronic Configurations of Transition Metals and Ions
Problems and Objective Questions
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in  Properties
Why do we need to classify elements, dobereiner's table
Newlands octaves, mendeleev periodic law and table
Uses and Defects of Mendeleevs Periodic Table 
Modern periodic law
Long Form of The Periodic Table
Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Number > 100
Electronic configuration, s and p block elements
d and f block elements
Classification of metals, non metals and metalloids
Periodic Trends In Physical Properties 
Trend In Atomic Radius 
Ionic Radius 
Ionization Enthalpy
Factors Affecting Ionization Enthalpy
Variation Of Ionization Enthalpy In The Periodic Table
Electron Gain Enthalpy
Factors and Trend of Electron Gain Enthalpy
Electronegativity
Periodic Trends in Chemical Properties, valence or oxidation states
Anomalous Properties and Diagonal Relationship  
Problems and Objective Questions
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Introduction and Octet rule
Lewis symbols
Ionic Bond
Energy Changes during the Formation of Ionic Bond 
Factors which favour the formation of Ionic Bond
General Properties of Ionic compounds
Covalent Bond and covalency
General Properties of Covalent compounds
Co-Ordinate Covalent Bond or dative bond
Lewis Representation of Molecules and Polyatomic Ions
Formal Charge
Bond Length and Bond Angle 
Bond Enthalpy and Bond Order 
Resonance structures
Polarity of bonds 
Dipole moment and molecular structures
VSEPR theory
Valence bond theory
Overlapping of Atomic Orbitals
Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bond, strength of sigma and pi bond, difference between sigma and pi bond
Definition and Features of Hybridisation
sp, sp2 and sp3 Hybridisation
sp3, sp2 and sp Hybridisation in carbon compounds
sp3d, sp3d2 and sp3d3 hybridisation
Short cut method for finding hybridisation
Hydrogen Bonding
Types of hydrogen bond and properties
Molecular Orbital Theory
Formation of Molecular Orbitals
Types of Molecular Orbitals
Energy level Diagram for Molecular Orbitals
Electronic configuration of molecules
Bonding in some Homo-nuclear diagram species  (hydrogen and hydrogen molecule)
Bonding in some Homo-nuclear diagram species  (lithium, beryllium, carbon molecule)
Bonding in some Homo-nuclear diagram species  (nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine molecule)
Problems and Objective Questions
State of Matter
Physical classification of matter and intermolecular force
Dispersion Forces and Dipole-Dipole Forces
Dipole induced - Dipole Forces and Hydrogen Bond 
Thermal energy, Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Energy, gaseous state
Gas Laws - Boyle's Law and its Problems
Charles Law and its Problems
Gay Lussacs Law
Avogadros Law: Ideal Gas Equation and Combined Gas Laws, density and molar mass
Nature and Numerical values of Gas constant R
Solved Problems on Combined Gas Laws
Solved Problems on Ideal Gas Equation
Solved Problems on Molar Mass and Density
Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
Solved Problems on Daltons Law
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
Explanation of Gas Laws by Kinetic Molecular Theory 
Behaviour of Real Gases : Deviation from Ideal Gas Behaviour 
Measuring Deviations From Ideal Behaviour
Causes of Deviations from Ideal Behaviour
Van Der Waals Equation of  State for Real Gases, volume correction, pressure correction, difference between real and ideal gas
Liquid State - Introduction and Properties - Volume/ Density/ Compressibility and Diffusion
Evaporation and Enthalpy of Vaporisation
Vapour Pressure
Boiling and Boiling Point
Surface Tension
Viscosity
Problems and Objective Questions
Thermodynamics
Introduction and limitation of thermodynamics
Some basic terms of Thermodynamics, types of system, state of system, state variables, state functions, types of process
Internal energy and Internal energy change
Modes of exchange of energy, heat and work
First law of Thermodynamics
Enthalpy and enthalpy change
Relationship between Enthalpy change and Internal energy change
Solved Problems
Heat capacity, relationship between cp and cv
Solved Problems on heat capacity
Enthalpy of Reactions, factors on which enthalpy of reaction depends, molar enthalpies of formation
Solved Problems on Enthalpy of formation
Enthalpy of Combustion, calorfic value
Enthalpy of solution and Hydration and Enthalpy changes during phase transition
Hess's law of constant heat summation
Applications of Hess's law
Bond enthalpy and Enthalpy of Atomization
Limitation of  first law and Spontaneity
Driving forces for spontaneity - Enthalpy change and Entropy
Entropy change and Spontaneity 
Gibbs Energy and Spontaneity
Gibbs energy change and Equilibrium constant
Solved Problems and Objective Questions
Equilibrium
Introduction, equilibrium in physical process, solid-liquid
Liquid-vapour, solid-vapour equilibrium
Equilibria involving dissolution of solids in liquids or gases in liquids
Characteristics of equilibria involving physical processes
Equilibrium in chemical processes
Dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium
Characteristics of chemical equilibrium
Law of mass action
Application of law of mass action to Chemical Equilibrium,  law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant in gaseous state
Relationship between Kp and Kc, units of equlibrium constant
Problems on equilibrium constant
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria
Solved problems on Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria
Characteristics of  Equilibrium Constant 
Application of Equilibrium Constant, predicting the extent of a reaction, predicting the direction of reaction
Calculation of Equilibrium Constants and Concentration
Factors affecting equilibrium, effect of concentration of change
Effect of change in pressure
Effect of temperature
Effect of addition of inert gas
Ionic equilibrium - Arrhenius concept of acids and bases
Bronsted - Lowry concept of acids and bases
Lewis concept of acids and bases
Solved Problems on Concepts of Acids and bases
Ionisation constant of water and ionic product of water
pH scale
Solved Problems on pH scale
Problems and Objective Questions
Redox Reactions
Introduction of redox reactions, classical concept of oxidation and oxidising agent
Classical concept of reduction and reducing agent
Electronic concept of oxidation and reduction
Redox reactions in terms of electron transfer reactions
Oxidation number, rules for determination of oxidation number of an atom
Redox reactions in terms of oxidation number
Types of redox reactions, Combination and Decomposition Reactions
Displacement Reactions
Disproportionation Reactions 
Balancing of redox reactions, oxidation number method
Problems on oxidation number method
Half reaction method and Problems
Problems and Objective Questions
Hydrogen
Hydrogen and Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table
Dihydrogen, occurrence, isotopes of hydrogen
Preparation of Dihydrogen, laboratory preparation of dihydrogen, preparation of pure hydrogen
Commercial preparation of dihydrogen, Physical properties of dihydrogen
Chemical Properties of Hydrogen
Uses of dihydrogen, hydrides, classification of hydrides, ionic hydrides
Covalent and Metallic Hydrides 
Water, physical properties of water, structure of water, structure of ice
Chemical Properties of Water
Hard and soft water, types of hardness, temporary hardness and permanent hardness, removal of temporary hardness
Removal of permanent hardness
Hydrogen Peroxide, preparation, physical properties
Structure and chemical properties of hydrogen peroxide, 
Storage and Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide
Problems and Objective Questions
The s-Block Elements
Introduction, abundance and occurrence, diagonal relationship and cause of diagonal relationship
Alkali metals, characterstics of alkali metals, Electronic configurations, atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, 
Physical properties of alkali metals
Chemical properties of alkali metals
Uses of alkali metals
General Characteristics of the compounds of  Alkali Metals, oxides and hydroxides, halides, salts and oxo-acids
Anomalous properties of lithium, points of difference between lithium and other alkali metals, points of similarities between lithium and magnesium
Some important compounds of sodium, sodium carbonate, its properties and uses, sodium chloride, its properties and uses
Sodium hydroxide, sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium
Alkaline earth metals, electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii
Ionization and hydration enthalpies
Physical properties of alkaline earth metals
Chemical properties of alkaline earth metals
Uses of  Alkaline Earth Metals 
General characteristics of compounds of Alkaline Earth Metals, Oxides and Hydroxides, Halides
Salts of oxoacids, carbonates, sulphates, nitrates
Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium, diagonal relationship between beryllium and aluminium
Some important compounds of calcium, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide
Calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate
Cement and Biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Problems and Objective Questions
The p-Block Elements
Introduction and General Characteristics of P - Block Elements, inert pair effect
Differences in behaviour of first element of each group
The Boron Family, electronic configuration, atomic radii
Ionization enthalpies, electronegativity
Physical and chemical properties of boron
Formation of electron deficient compound, reactivity towards air, reactivity towards acids and alkalies, reactivity towards halogens
Some Important Compounds of Boron,  Borax
Some Important Compounds of Boron, Orthoboric acid
Some Important Compounds of Boron, Diborane 
Uses of Boron and Aluminium
The carbon family, electronic configuration, covalent radius, ionization enthalpy, electronegativity
Physical and chemical properties of carbon, oxidation states and trends in chemical reactivity
Chemical properties of carbon, reactivity towards oxygen, reactivity towards water, reactivity towards halogen
Anomalous Behaviour of  Carbon
Allotropes of Carbon, Diamond
Graphite
Fullerenes, uses of carbon
Some important compounds of carbon and silicon, carbon monoxide
Carbon Dioxide 
Silicon Dioxide
Silicones
Silicates and Zeolites
Problems and Objective Questions
Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General Introduction
Tetravalency of carbon, hybridization and shapes of molecules
Features of Pi - Bonds and Problems
Structural Representation of Organic Compounds
Three dimensional representation of organic molecules and solved example
Classification of organic compounds: acyclic, cyclic, aromatic, heterocyclic compounds
Functional Group and homologous Series
Nomenclature of organic compounds
IUPAC system of nomenclature, IUPAC nomenclature of alkanes, Straight chain hydrocarbons
Branched chain hydrocarbons, longest chain rule, lowest sum rule
Nomenclature of organic compounds having functional group
Nomenclature of organic compounds with two or more different functional group
Nomenclature of compounds with bond line formulae
Writing structure of compound whose IUPAC name is given
Nomenclature of substituted benzene compounds
Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanism, fission of a covalent bond, heterolytic fission and homolytic fission
Reaction intermediates, free radicals
Carbocation, inductive and hyperconjugation effect
Carbanion and Carbenes, triplet state and singlet state
Types of Attacking Reagents, nucleophiles and electrophiles
Electron Movement, electron displacements in covalent bonds, inductive effect
Electromeric Effect
Resonance structures , features of resonance
Resonance effect
Hyperconjugation
Methods of purification of organic compounds, crystallisation
Sublimation, Distillation
Fractional and Steam distillation
differential extraction
Chromatography
Qualitative Analysis of organic compounds, detection of carbon and hydrogen, detection of other elements
Function of nitric acid, detection of phosphorous, detection of oxygen
Estimation  of Carbon and Hydrogen
Estimation of Nitrogen (Dumas Method)
Estimation of Nitrogen (Kjeldahls Method)
Estimation of Halogens and Sulphur
Estimation of Phosphorus and Oxygen
Isomerism : structural and stereoisomerism
Problems and Objective Questions
Hydrocarbons
Introduction and Classification of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes, nomenclature 
Isomerism, classification of carbon atoms in alkanes
Preparation: from unsaturated hydrocarbons, from alkyl halides
Preparation from carboxylic acids
Physical properties of hydrocarbons and alkanes
Chemical Properties of Alkanes, substitutions reactions
Mechanism of halogenation
Combustion, controlled oxidation, isomerisation, reaction with steam
Aromatization and pyrolysis
Conformations, sawhorse nad newman projections, relative stability of conformations
Alkenes, structure of double bond
Nomenclature of alkenes
Isomerism
Preparation: from alkyl halides, from alkynes
Preparation: from vicinal dihalides, from alcohols
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties: addition of dihydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, addition reaction of HBr to symmetrical alkenes, addition reaction of HBr to unsymmetrical alkenes, markovnikov rule
Mechanism of addition HBr to unsymmetrical alkenes, anti markovnikov addition
Addition of sulphuric acid, addition of water, oxidation
Ozonolysis, polymerisation, uses of polymers
Alkynes, nomenclature and isomerism
Structure of Triple Bond
Preparation of Alkynes , from calcium carbides, from vacinal dihalides, by action of zinc, by dehalogenation of haloform, by electrolysis of of aqueos solution of potassium salt of fumaric acid, from acetylene
Physical and chemical properties, acidic character of alkyne
Addition reactions, addition of dihydrogen, addition of halogens, addition of hydrogen halides
Addition of water, polymerization
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Nomenclature and Isomerism
Structure of Benzene, resonance and stability of benzene
Orbital Structure of Benzene
Aromaticity
Preparation of benzene
Physical properties, chemical properties, electrophilic substituion reactions, halogenation
Sulphonation, nitration, friedal crafts alkylation ,friedel crafts acylation, addition reactions, oxidation reactions
Mechanism of Electrophilic Subtitution
Examples of Electrophilic Subtitutions
Directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene, ortho and para directing groups
Meta directing groups
Problems and Objective Questions
Sets
Introduction, sets and their representations
Empty sets, finite, infinite and equal sets
Subset, power set, universal set and examples
Intervals and Questions
Venn diagrams, operations on sets
Complement of set and questions
Practical problems on union and intersection of two sets
Properties of different sets
Questions
Relations and Functions
Cartesian product of sets and ordered pair and triplets
Questions and properties of product of sets
Cartesian product and relations
Functions
Identity, constant, polynomial, quadratic, cubic functions
Rational, modulus, signum, greatest integer functions
Algebra of Real Functions
Domain, range, co-domain and examples
Questions
Trigonometric Function
Revision of Class X
Degree measure
Radian measure, relation bewtween degree and radian
Trigonometric functions and sign of trigonometric functions
Value of trigonometric
Domain and range of trigonometric functions
Graph of sin x and cos x
Graph of tan x
Trigonometric functions of sum and difference of two angles
Trigonometric functions of sum and difference of two angles continued (product to sum and sum to product and some examples on these)
Trigonometric ratios of 2A and 3A and questions
Principal solutions of trigonometric equations 
Square form and linear form
Multiplies of 18 degree, max/min values of (acosA + bcosA) and its Problems
Solution of Triangle: Sine/Cosine and Projection Rule, Half angle formulae/Area of Triangle and itrs Problems
Principle of Mathematical Induction
Principle of mathematical induction: Statements and examples
Problems
Complex Number and Quadratic Equation
Introduction of i and power of i
Square root of negative real numbers
Introduction of complex numbers and examples
Addition and difference of complex numbers, properties of addition of complex numbers
Multiplication of a complex numbers and its properties and identities
Modulus and conjugate of complex numbers
Properties of Conjugate of Complex Numbers
Multiplicative Inverse and Quotient of Complex Numbers and examples
Properties of Modulus of Complex Numbers 
Argand plane and polar representations, polar representation of complex number
Conversion of cartesian to polar form and examples
Questions
Cube Root of Unity
Square Root of Complex Numbers
De-Moivre's Theorem
Linear Inequalities
Inequalities, algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their graphical representation 
graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables and examples
Questions
Permutation and Combinations
Fundamental Principle of Counting
Factorial Notation and examples
Permutations, theorem 1, 2, 3 and 4, permutations when all the objects are distinct and when all the objects are not distinct objects
combinations, theorem 5
Properties of combinations
Questions
Binomial Theorem
Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices
Some special cases 
Question of exercise 8.1
General Terms and Question of exercise 8.2
Question of exercise 8.2
Middle terms and Question of exercise 8.2
Question of exercise 8.2 and example 9
Examples on middle terms
Problems
Binomial Theorem for Rational Index
Binomial Coefficients: Introduction and Examples
Sequence and Series
Introduction of sequence and series and solve questions of exercise 9.1
A.P.
Questions of exercise 9.2
G.P.
Questions of exercise 9.3 and relationship between AM and GM
Sum to n terms of special series
Questions of exercise 9.4
Examples
Infinite Geometric Progression, Examples
Straight Lines
Cordinate system in a plane, distance formula, section formula 
Questions of exercise 10.1
Inclination of line, slope of a line, conditions for tow non vertical lines are parallel, conditions for two non vertical lines are perpendicular
Angle between two lines, Colinearity of Three Points
Various Forms of the Equation of a Line, horizontal and vertical lines, point-slope form
Slope intercept form, two point form
Intercept and normal form
Questions
General introduction of line, reduce to slope intercept, intercept, normal form
Distance of a point from a line
Distance b/w two parallel lines
Equation of Parallel line
Parametric Form of Equation of Line and its Applications
Family of Lines and Miscellaneous Problems
Conic Section
Circle, parabola, ellipse and hyprbola
Diameter of circle and questions
General equation of circle questions
Special cases of equation of circle and questions
Parabola and standard equations of parabola
Focal chord, focal distance and latus rectum
Introduction on shift of origin
Ellipse, vertices, relation between semi major and semi minor axis, eccentricity
Standard equation of ellipse
Latus rectum of ellipse
Hyperbola, eccentricity
Standard equation of hyperbola and example
Questions
Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometery
Coordinate geometry and coordinates planes, coordinates of a point in space
Distance between two points
Section formula
Questions
Limits and Derivative
Introduction of limit
Algebra of limit, limits of polynomials and rational functions
Limits of trigonometric functions ,theorem 3 and 4 (sandwich form)
Derivative and definition, theorem and example
Algebra of derivative, derivative of polynomial functions
Questions
Derivative using Chain Rule
Mathematical Reasoning
Mathematical Statement, Definition
Negation and Compound Statements
Special words and phrases: Connective And
Connective Or and Quantifiers
Implications
Contrapositive/Converse and If only If 
Problems
Validating Statements
Statistics
Measures of dispersion, range, mean deviation, standard deviation
Mean deviation for ungrouped gata and examples
M. D  of Discrete Frequency Distribution about mean and median
M. D  of continuous Frequency Distribution about mean
M. D  of continuous Frequency Distribution about median
Variance and standard deviation
Variance and standard deviation of discrete frequency distribution and examples
Variance and standard deviation of continuous frequency distribution and examples
Step deviation method of finding variance and examples
Analysis of frequency distributions
Questions
Probability
Introduction, sample space, random experiment
Events, definition, types of events, impossible and sure events, simple and compound events
Complimentary event, the event A or B, the event A and B, mutually exclusive, exhaustive events
Axiomatic approach to probability, probability of equally likely outcomes, Probability of the event A or B
Questions
Living World
Introduction, What is living?
Diversity in the Living World and Nomenclature, Rules of binomial nomenclature, Advantages of scientific names, Codes of nomenclature
Classification: Classical and Modern taxonomy
Taxonomic Categories: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
Taxonomical Aids: herbarium, botanical gardens:museums, zoological parks, key
Objective Questions
Biological Classification
Biological classification, Three kingdom classification
Five kingdom classification, Advantages and Drawbacks
Kingdom Monera: archaebacteria, eubacteria, photoautotrophic, chemosynthetic, saprophytic, symbiotic, parasitic bacteria
Reproduction in bacteria, Endospores, Sexual reproduction, Cell structure, Archaebacteria, Mycoplasma
Kingdom Protista: protists structure, locomotion, nutrition and reproduction in protists
Photosynthetic, structure, reserve foods, reproduction, economic importance of diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Euglenoids, slime mould
Protozoan Protista
Kingdom -Fungi
Phycomycetes, zygomycetes
Ascomycetes
Basidiomycetes, deuteromycetes
Kingdom Plantae and Animalia
Viruses and Viroids 
Lichens and Mycorrhizae
Objective Questions
Plant Kingdom
Introduction and Types of classification
Algae
Chlorophyceae
Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae
Bryophytes
Liverworts and Mosses
Pteridophytes, Selaginella
Two types of Spores, Life cycle of Fern
Spermaphytes
Gymnosperms
Life cycle of Cycas and Pinus
Angiosperms
Alteration of generation
Objective Questions
Animal Kingdom
Basis of clasification, Levels of organisation, Circulatory system, Body symmetry
Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organization, Nature of Coelom, Body plans
Segmentation, Notochord, Classification of Animals
Phylum- Porifera
Phylum- Coelenterata
Phylum- Ctenophora
Phylum- Platyhelminthes
Phylum- Aschelminthes
Classification of Phylum- Aschelminthes
Phylum- Annelida
Phylum- Arthropoda, characters, features, advancement over Annelids
Classification of Phylum- Arthropoda
Differences between: Centipedes and Millipedes, Culex and Anopheles, Butterfly and Moth, Insects and Spider, Different types of Mosquito
Phylum- Mollusca
Phylum- Echinodermata
Phylum- Hemichordata
Phylum- Chordata(protochordata)
Subphylum- Vertebrata
Pisces Classification, Differences between Shark and Ray
Class Osteichthyes, General Characters and Examples
Lung- Fishes
Class- Amphibia
Class- Reptilia
Lizards and Snakes
Crocodile: Alligator and Gavialis
Class- Aves
Class- Mammalia
Class- Mammalia(theria)
Classification of Eutheria
Objective Questions
Morphology of Flowering Plants
Introduction, Angiosperm diversity, Parts of flowering plant, Parts of typical root
Modifications of Tap Root, Modification of Adventitious Roots
Morphology of stem, buds, branching of stem, undrground modification of stem
Modification of stem, wek stems, underground stem
Leaf, Parts of leaf, Venation, Types of leaves
Phyllotaxy, Modifications of leaves, Functions of leaves
Inflorescence, Flowers
Parts of flowers, calyx, corolla, epicalyx, aestivation, perianth
Androecium, Gynoecium, Placentation
Fruits
Seed, Structure of dicotyledonous seed, Structure of monocotyledonous seed,
Semi-technical description of a typical flowering plant, Floral diagram
Description of some important families: fabaceae, solanaceae, lilliaceae
Objective Questions
Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Anatomy of flowering plants, Tissues
Meristematic tissues
Permanent tissues
Simple permanent tissues
Complex permanent tissue- Xylem
Complex permanent tissue- Phloem
The tissue system, Epidermal tissue system
Ground and Vascular tissue system
Anatomy of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, Dicotyledonous root
Monocotyledonous root
Dicotyledonous stem
Monocotyledonous stem
Dicotyledonous leaf
Monocotyledonous leaf
Secondary growth: Vascular cambium
Cork cambium
Secondary growth in roots
Objective Questions
Structural Organisation in Animals
Morphology of Earthworm
Anatomy of Earthworm
Digestive system of Earthworm
Blood vascular system of Earthworm
Excretory system of Earthworm
Nervous system of Earthworm
Reproductive organs of Earthworm
Copulation and Cocoon formation
Morphology of Cockroach
Morphology-Mouth/Thorax
Morphology-Abdomen
Anatomy-Body wall/Endoskeleton-fat body
Digestive system of Cockroach
Blood vascular system of Cockroach
Respiratory system of Cockroach
Excretory/Endocrine system of Cockroach
Nervous system of Cockroach
Reproductive system of Cockroach
Introduction - RANA TIGRINA(Indian Frog)
Anatomy- Digestive system of frog
Respiratory system of frog
Blood vascular system of frog, Blood, Blood corpuscles, Blood clotting, Heart structure, Working of heart
Renal portal system of frog, Hepatic portal system, Significance of hepatic portal system, Lymphatic system
Excretory system of frog
Nervous system of frog, Brain, Fucntion of brain, Spinal cord, Cranial nerves and Spinal nerves, Autonomic nervous system
Sense organs, Structure of eye of frog, Working of eye, Structure of ear of frog, Endocrine glands
Reproductive system of frog, Economic importance
Structural organisation in animals, Different tissue function in our body, Epithelial tissue, Simple epithelial tissue
Compound epithelial tissue
Glandular epithelium, Types of glands, Modified epithelia, Functions of epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Loose connective tissue
Dense connective tissue
Specialized connective tissue, Types of cartilages
Bone, Microscopic structure of decalcified mammalian bone, Types of bone, Types of bone marrow
Blood, Function of blood, Plasma protein, Function of blood plasma
Formed elements, Erythrocytes, Hematocrit value, Erythrocytes sedimentation rate, Function of RBC
Leucocytes, Granulocytes, Difference between Red blood and White blood corpuscles
Thermbocytes, Human blood corpuscles, Blood coagulation, Clotting factors, Blood clotting prevention
Lymph, Difference between Lymphatic and Blood capilllaries
Reticular and pigmented connective tissue, Mucoid tissue, Functions of connective tissue
Types of muscles, Characters of both unstriped and striped muscles
Neurons, Components and Types of Neurons, Nerve fibres, Nerves, Neuroglia, Ependymal cells, Neurosecretory cells
Objective Questions
Cell The Unit of Life
Introduction, Discovery of cells, Cell theory and its significance
Diversity of cell, Open system, Cell types, Structure of bacterial cell
Prokaryotic cells, Different layers of bacterial cells, Grams positive and Gram negative
Components of bacterial cells: cytoplasm, nucleoid, plasmids
Inclusion bodies: flagella, pilli and fimbriae, Difference between pilli and fimbriae
Eukaryotic cells, Difference between: eucaryotic and prokaryotic, plant and animal cells
Fluid mosaic model
Modifications of cell membrane
Function of cell membrane
Bulk transport, Difference between: pinocytosis and phagocytosis, active and passive transport
Cell wall
Protoplasm, Cytoplasmic streaming, Cell organelles and Cell inclusions
Endomembrane system, Difference between SER and RER
Golgi apparatus
Lysomes
Vacuoles
Mitochondria
Plastids
Protoplastids, sphaerosomes, microbodies
Ribosomes
Cytoskeletal structures
Difference between cilia and flagella
Centrioles and Centrosomes
Nucleus, Ultrastructures
Chromatin, difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin, chromatin and chromosomes, nucleolus, cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, functions
Chromosomes, karyotype, functions of chromosomes
Giant chromosomes, lampbrush chromosomes
Cell inclusions, reserve food, excretory, minerals
Objective Questions
Biomolecules
Macromolecules, Micromolecules, How to analyse chemical composition?
Amino acids, types of amino acids, protein amino acids, non protein amino acids, esential amino acid
Protein, structure of protein
Types of proteins, electrical reaction of proteins, function of proteins
Lipids, fatty acids, type of lipids, neutral/true fats
Conjugated lipids, derived lipids, steroids, functions of lipids
Carbohydrate, monosaccharides, derived monosaccharides, oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides, storage, structure, mucopolysaccharides, functions
Nucleotides, Higher nucleotides, Structure of DNA
Metabolic pathway, catabolism, anabolism, ATP, living state
Primary metabolites and their role, Secondary metabolites and their role, Differences between primary and secondary metabolites
Enzymes, endoenzyme, exoenzyme, holoenzyme, difference between enzyme and catalysts
Nomenclature and classification of enzymes, Characterstics of enzymes, Substrate complex
Factors influencing enzyme activity: temperature, pH product concentration, substrate concentration, michalis menton concentration
Activation energy, Action of enzyme
Inhibition of enzyme, non competitive and competitive inhibition, feed back inhibition 
Mechanism of enzymes action, lock and key hypothesis, induced fir theory, difference between lock and key and induced fit theory
Objective Questions
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Importance of Cell division, Factors controlling cell division, Cell cycle: M, I and G1 phase
S, G2, G0 phase
M- phase, Prophase
Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Cytokinesis, plant and animal cytokinesis, plant and animal mitosis, significance of mitosis
Meiosis, Meiosis -I, Prophase-I
Pachytene, Crossing over, Diplotene, Diakinesis
Metaphase -I, Anaphase, Telophase -I, Significance of meiosis -I
Meiosis II, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase -II, Cytokinesis
Significant of meiosis, Type of meiosis, Difference between mitosis and meiosis
Transport in Plants
Introduction, Means of transport, Factors affecting diffusion, Importance
Facilitated diffusion, Types of tranport protein, Channel, Carrier, Active transport, Comparison of different transport mechanism
Plant water relation, Water potential, Solute potential, Pressure potential
Osmosis, Potato Osmometer, Thistle funnel experiment, Osmotic pressure, Osmotic concentrations, Importance of osmosis, Difference between diffusion and osmosis
Plasmolysis, Deplasmolysis, Importance of plasmolysis, Ihibition, Important in absorbing and retaining water
Long distance transport of water, mass flow, how do plants absorbs water, two distinct pathway of tranport, difference between apoplast and symplast pathway
Water movement up a plant:root pressure, guttation, root pressure theory, objection to root pressure theory
Cohesion tension theory, demonstration of transpiration, types of transpiration, stomatal apparatus
Factors affecting transpiration, external factors, internal or plant factors, significance of transpiration, disadvantages, transpiration and photosynthesis- a compromise
Passive water absorption, continous water column, cohesion, transpiration pull, evidences
Uptake and transport of mineral nutrients:uptake of mineral ions, translocation of mineral ions, pholem transport:flow from source to sink, the pressure flow or mass flow hypothesis, pathway of translocation
Objective Questions
Mineral Nutrition
Introduction, method to study the minerals requirements of plants, hydroponics, essential mineral elements
Criteria for essentiality, macro and micronutrients, function of essential elements, energy related compounds
Role of macro and micro nutrients, major functions and deficiency symptoms
Essential elements, major functions, deficiency symptoms
Deficiency symptoms of essential elements, common deficiency symptoms
Toxicity of micronutrients, mechanism of absorption of elements, translocation of solutes
Soil as reservoir of essential elements, mechanism of nitrogen:nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixation
Biological nitrogen fixation, mechanism, ammonification
Nitrification, denitrification, nitrate assimilation, synthesis of amino acids, protein synthsis, amides
denitrification
Objective Questions
Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Introduction, importance of photosynthesis, experiment for starch formation, half leaf experiment , history
Why does photosynthesis takes place? Composition of chloroplasts
Pigments involved in photosynthesis, chlorophylls, carotenoids, xanthophylls, absorption and action spectrum
Photosynthetic units, photosystems, electron transport chain
Mechanism of photosynthesis, photochemical phase, biosynthetic phase, noncyclic and cyclic photophosphorylation
Chemiosmotic hypothesis of ATP formation
Biosynthetic phase, history
Calvin cycle, carboxylation, reduction, regeneration
C4 - pathway, initial and fianl fixation, transport, importance, difference between C3 and C4
Photorespiration, importance
Cruslaccean acid metabolism, factors affecting photosynthesis, principle orlaw of limiting factors
Factors influencing photosynthesis
Objective Questions
Respiration in Plants
Introduction, cellular respiration, respiratory substrate, do plants breathe?, reasons for absence of respiratory organs in plants
Types of respiration, respiratory quotient
Glycolysis, net product of glycolysis
Fragmentation, anaerobic respiration, ethyl alcohol and lactic acid fragmentation, difference between glycolysis and lactic acid, aerobic respiration
Tricarboxylic acid cycle, difference between glycolysis and krebs cycle
Terminal oxidation, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
Respiratory balance sheet, fragmentation and aerobic respiration, significance of krebs cycle, an amphibolic pathway
Objective Questions
Plant Growth and Development
Growth, plant growth generally is indeterminate, growth is measurable
Phases of growth, formative phase, phases of differentiation and enlargement, growth rates
Condition for growths, differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation, development
Plant growth regulators, ethylene, auxins, auxins fuctions, uses of auxins
Gibberellins, uses and functions
Cytokinins, uses and functions
Ethylene and abscisic acid
Photoperiodism
Vernalisation
Objective Questions
Digestion and Absorption
Human physiology, nutrition, different types of nutrition, human digestive system, alimentary canal, papillae
Waldeyer ring, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine
Large intestine, histology of alimentary canal
Digestive and salivary glands, gall bludder, ducts, function of liver, function of bile
Pancreas, gastric glands, stem cell
Intestinal glands, swallowing, peristalsis
Mechanism of digestion, digestion of carbohydrates, oral cavity, small intestine, lactose intolerance
Digestion of proteins
Digestion of lipids and nucleic acids
Control of digestion, neural control of digestion, hormonal control of digestion, absorption of nutrients
Site of absorption, absorption of different nutrients, process of absorption, difference between micelles and chylomicrons
Assimilation and storage
Egestion, balanced diet, nutritional deficiencies and disorders, disorder due to over nutrition
Disorders of digestive system, vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea, indigestion, jaundice
Objective Questions
Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Introduction, respiration, difference between breathing and respiration, types of respiration, aerobic and anerobic respiration, difference betweeen external and internal respiration, direct and indirect respiration
Respiratory organs, anatomy of human respiratory system, voice production
Trachea, lungs
Mechanism of breathing
Pulmonary volumes, pulmonary capacities, difference between capacity and total lung capacity
Exchange of gases, external respiration, partial pressure
Tranport of gases: transport of oxygen, bohr's effect, internal respiration
Transport of carbon dioxide, release of carbon dioxide in the alveoli of lung, haldane effect
Regulation of respiration, neural and chemical regulation
Respiratory disorders, cause, symptoms, prevention and cure
Objective Questions
Body Fluids and Circulation
Introduction, compartments of body fluids, transcellular fluid, important constituents of extracellular fluids, chemical compostion of extracellular and intracellular fluids, significance of body fluids
Blood, function of blood, plasma protein, function of blood plasma
RBC
WBC, difference between RBC and WBC
Thrombocytes, blood coagulation, clotting factors, prevention of blood clotting
Blood groups: ABO 
Rh blood grouping, incompatibility during blood transfusion and pregnancy
Anatomy of lymphatic system, lymph, lymphatic capillaries and vessel, thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct
Circulatory pathway, advantages of closed circulatory system, difference between open and closed circulatory system, arteries and veins
Hearts found in different vertebrates, types of circulation, single and double circulation
Pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation, difference between pulmonary and systemic circulation, circulation through special regions, coronary and heptic portal circulation
Hypophysical portal circulation, cerebral circulation, cutaneous circulation, lymph circulation
Anatomy and structure of human heart
Internal view of heart, histology
Origin and conduction of heart beat, difference between SA and AV node, pulse, heart beat and pulse, regulation of heart beat:neural, harmonal
Cardiac cycle
Heart sounds, electrocardiogram
Regulation of circulation, nervous and chemical regulation
Disorders of circulatory system, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction
Arteriosclerosis, difference between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis, types of heart block, cerebro, rheumatic and congenital heart disease, fibrillation, ischemia, coronary thrombosis
Objective Questions
Excretory Products and their Elimination
Introduction, types of metabolic wastes, types of excretions, difference between ammonotelism, ureotelism and uricotelism
Excretory structure, kidney
Ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, difference between male and female urethra
Structure of nephrone, glomerulus, bowman's capsule, renal tubule
Blood supply, juxtaglomerular apparatus, types of nephrons, difference between juxtamedullary and cortical nephrons
Urine formation, glomerular filteration
Tubular reabsorption: in proximal convoluted tubule, in descending and ascending limb of loop of henle, in distal convoluted tubule and in collecting duct
Tubular secretion, proximal convoluted tube, henle loop, distal convoluted loop
Mechanism of concentration of nephric filterate, significance of urea
Regulation of kidney
Micturition, nerve supply to urinary bladder and sphincters, constituents of urine, abnormal urine
Accessory excretory organ, difference between sweat and sebum, disorder of excretory system
Disorders of the Excretory Systems
Objective Questions
Locomotion and Movement
Introduction, movement, locomotion, types of movement
Types of muscles, characters of both unstriped and striped muscles
Structure of skeletal muscle, myosin and actin filaments
Structure of contractile protein, thin and thick filament
Mechanism of muscle contraction, sliding filament theory, concept of resting membrane potential
Mechanism of muscle contraction, electrical and biochemical events in muscle contraction
Muscle relaxation, cori cycle and oxygen debt
Kind of striated muscle fibre, hypertrophy, atrophy
Human skeletal system, function of skeleton, skull and its functions
Vertebral column 
Sternum and Ribs
Pectoral gridles, Pelvic girdles
Bones of arms and legs
Joints and Its types
Role of muscles and bones in movement, disorder of muscular and skeletal system, fracture and slipped disc
Objective Questions
Neural Control and Coordination
Introduction, neural systems and its functions
Human neural systems, neurons, difference between myelinated and non mylinated
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse, membrane, resting membrane potential, repolarization, saltatory conduction of nerve impulse
Transmissiom of Nerve Impulse
Central neural system / Cerebrum
Diencephalon and Limbic System
Midbrain / Hindbrain
Ventricles of Brain / CSF
Spinal Cord / Reflex action
Sensory organs of vision - eye, fibrous , vascular and nervous coat
Contents of eye ball, Difference between aqueous and viterous humour, Mechanism of vision, Eye adaption, Eye accommodation
Structure of human ear, External and middle ear
Internal Ear
Internal ear-cochlea, Mechanism of hearing, Defects of sense organs
Peripheral neural system, Cranial and Spinal nerves
Autonomic Nerves System
Objective Questions
Chemical Control and Integration
Introduction, difference between neural and chemical coordination, two types of glands, discovery of hormone, important features of hormone, human endocrine system
Hypothalamus, why hypothalamus is called control centre?
Pituitary gland, disorders
Pineal gland, thyroid disorders, hyperthyroidism
Parathyroid, disorders, thymus
Adrenal, adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla, difference between adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
Hormones of pancreas and their role, function of insulin, diabetes, type l and type ll diabetes, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, diabetes and diabetes insipidus
Gonads, testes, ovary
Heart, kidneys, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract
Eicosanoids, leukotrienes, role of hormones as messenger and regulators, positive and negative feedback control, synergistic and antagonistic effect
Mechanism of harmone action, mode of hormone action through intracellular and extracellular receptors
Objective Questions

OUR RESULTS

Abhilash AIR-29, IIT-JEE’2010
Vaibhav Satavan AIR-62, IIT-JEE’2010
Harshit Sihara AIR-2, AIEEE;AIR-97, IIT-JEE’2010
Smriti Irani AIR 584, IIT-JEE’2010
Nitika 36th Rank, DPMT
Harshit Sihara AIR-2, AIEEE’2010;AIR-97, IIT-JEE’2010
Srinidhi K VAIR-871, IIT-JEE’2010;State rank-22, AIEEE’2010
Nikhil 75th Rank,DPMT’2010
Apeksha Nimbadia PCM-95% Class XII, Birla Vidya Niketan, Delhi
Maniya Saini 87% Class XII, Army Public School, Gurdaspur, Punjab
Upama Mittal 90% Class XII, DPS, Mathura Road, Delhi
Shwetabh P Pranwit Class XII, Don Bosco School, Delhi 90.2%
Nirmal Roul Class XII-92%
Hardeek Kambli Class XII-91%

Customer Speak

I belong to a place where quality education is just a dream. TopChalks class XI package made my dream come true. Now I am studying from DPS teachers, sitting in my village.Thank you TopChalks."
Nitin Kumar Sharma, Class XI, Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh
" I have studied Chemistry, Maths and Physics from here. It is really very good and helpful. Especially chemistry teacher is very good. His way of teaching is very nice."
Nitin Chauhan, Class XI-Salwan Public School, Gurgaon
" Lovely Planning, perfect demos, perfect teacher. You all are doing a great job,making studies very compact, easy and understanding rather than mugging up and all that...WELL DONE!!"
K T Ajay, Class XI, Kerala
" This is an excellent website for the students to study and fabulous piece of work. Thank you TopChalks for bringing best teachers in my home."
Sudhakar, Class XI, Hyderabad
" I am not taking any tuition for PCM. Topchalks is enough for all my requirements. I am confident about my XI and XII board results now."
Biren Chetia, National Public School, Guwahati
" Being good at studies there was a constant pressure to perform better and as a result I used to take help from lot of books and coaching too. But since I got introduced to Topchalks study is fun now. I am no more burdened by expectations because I know I am getting the best education from best teachers of our country."
Prabhu T S, class XI, Chennai