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Physics Chemistry Maths Biology English Accountancy


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XII-Instructors

Mr. Sajid Hussain, Physics

Mr. Sajid Hussain

Mr. Sajid Hussain is the, HOD Physics at Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon. Take a look at any one of his lectures..

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Mr. Shachindra Sharma, Chemistry

Mr. Shachindra Sharma

Mr. Shachindra Sharma (M.Sc. Delhi University, B.Ed. and CSIR Fellow) is one of the most popular, innovative ..

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Mr. S C Goel, Math

Mr. S C Goel

Mr. S.C. Goel is the former principal and HOD, Maths, at Air Force Bal Bharati School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi and he has over 30 years..

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Mrs. Poonam Jubbal, Biology

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal is a highly trained and experienced educationist in the field of Biology with a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Zoology and M.Ed..

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Dr. Sunil K. Rai, English

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal

Dr. Sunil K. Rai is the HOD, English at Salwan Public school, Gurgaon. He has employed a number of,..

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Mr. Navin Verma, Accounts

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal

Navin Verma, is one of the most successful faculty of our country for Accountancy. He graduated with Honors in B.Com from Delhi University and did M.Com and B.Ed from CCS University...

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Mr. Sajid Hussain

Mr. Sajid Hussain is the HOD Physics at Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon. Take a look at any one of his lectures from any physics chapter of your choice. You will realize that there is no need to be afraid of Physics. He has made Physics an easy subject for numerous students, who have performed extremely well in the Board exams and also captured seats in top engineering and medical colleges throughout India. Mr. Sajid Hussain can do the same for you. He is a M.Sc. (Physics) graduate from AMU with 15 years of teaching experience and has been associated with top notch schools throughout his career. At Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, his students have consistently graduated with top marks in Physics. Some of his students travel hundreds of kilometers just to be tutored by him. Mr. Sajid Hussain has achieved these extraordinary results by simplifying what others seem to believe as difficult concepts to grasp. Take a look at a number of his sample lessons to see how he makes Physics easy for a student to learn.

Come, experience effortless learning of Physics...
- Mr. Sajid Hussain,HOD Physics, Delhi Public School, Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon.

Mr. Shachindra Sharma

Mr. Shachindra Sharma (M.Sc. Delhi University, B.Ed. and CSIR Fellow) is one of the most popular, innovative and result oriented Chemistry teacher. He is working as a senior faculty (Dy. HOD) of Chemistry at Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram; India's Premier institution. For the last 18 years he has taught thousands of students in India and abroad. His simple but unique method of teaching has made Chemistry an easy to understand and high scoring subject. His students have been top achievers not only in the Board exams but also in many of the competitive tests conducted by top Engineering, Medical and other famous Universities of the world. Mr. Sharma's long cherished dream of making quality teaching available to the needy students is now a realty with TopChalks.com. He has prepared each lesson carefully, leisurely over a long period of time without any time pressure or constraints. At TopChalks.com his lessons facilitate the students to learn Chemistry in the most relaxed atmosphere. These lessons are available online, 24 x 7, for the students to use at their discretion.

If it has done wonders for thousands of students, why not YOU...
- Shachindra Sharma,Dy. HOD, Chemistry, Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram

Mr. S C Goel

Mr. S.C. Goel is the former principal and HOD, Maths, at Air Force Bal Bharti School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi and he has over 30 years of experience teaching Maths. He has made his students excel in Maths by relating it to analogies and events in day to day life. He is proud of the fact that his students are not only super achievers in Board Exams but many of them are also rankers in competitive exams such as IIT-JEE. In his course at TopChalks.com, Mr. Goel has extensively covered every concept of XII Board Maths and regardless of where the student is in his/her preparation, Mr. Goel's lessons will assist the student in boosting his/her performance and confidence to significantly higher level. He has explained the concepts, problems and solutions in a number of different ways, in order to ensure that every level of student benefits from his teaching. The student can be assured that he/she will be extremely well prepared to score high on the XII Board Maths exam.

Let's make Math simpler...
- S. C. Goel,Former-Principal, Air Force Bal Bharti School - New Delhi

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal

Mrs. Poonam Jubbal is a highly trained and experienced educationist in the field of Biology with a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Zoology and M.Ed. in education. She was a topper at Hindu College in her B.Sc. and M.Sc. exams with a 7th rank in Delhi University in the B.Sc. exam. Teaching Biology is her passion. She has taught Biology for the last 25 years at top schools like Delhi Public School and other premier institutes like Aakash. Many of her students today are accomplished Doctors, Scientists and Scholars. She has perfected a way to help students learn Biology in a systematic way, one that produces excellent results. Take a look at her sample lessons to see for yourself why she is such a sought after instructor.

Decipher the DNA of Biology...
-Poonam Jubbal,Founder Teacher, DPS Faridabad - NCR

Sunil K. Rai

Dr. Sunil K. Rai is the HOD English at Salwan Public school, Gurgaon. He has been teaching English for past decade and during this time he has employed a number of innovative teaching techniques in English with his students. He is proud to say that his students have achieved great success. He believes that language and idiom resource methods are the repertoire of a good teacher and so must they be of a good student. He is of the opinion that education cannot be imposed but must grow in a student from within. He strongly believes that if the intuition is awakened, the purpose of education is complete. Dr. Rai is very confident that his course at TopChalks.com will provide the students with every tool that they need to excel in the Board Exams. Do not hesitate to take a look at a number of his sample lectures below.

Learn English in an innovative way
-Sunil K. Rai,HOD English, Salwan Public School - Gurgaon

Class XII DEMOS

PHYSICS | By Mr. Sajid Hussain, DPS Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon

CHEMISTRY | By Mr. Shachindra Sharma, DPS R. K. Puram, New Delhi

MATHS | By Mr.Goel, Air Force Bal Bharati School, New Delhi

BIOLOGY | By Ms. Poonam Jubbal , DPS , Faridabad

ENGLISH | By Mr. Sunil K. Rai , Salwan Public School, Gurgaon

Accountancy | By Mr. Navin Verma, Subject Expert & Education Auditor, DPS

Class-XII Course Details


Subject No. of Chapters No. of Lectures Taught Solved Problems No. of Hours
Physics 15 646 375 70
Chemistry 16 725 400 80
Maths 13 538 1345 100
Biology 16 571 375 40
English 22 92   20
Accountancy 12 147 67 40
PCMBE-Combo 82 2572 2495 310

\
Class-XII Syllabus
Electric Charges and Fields
Introduction of Electric Charges and Electrostatics
Origin of Charge and Unit of charge
Methods of Charging
Basic Properities of Electric Charge
Questions on Charging
Coulomb's  Law and its Vector Form
Questions on Coulomb Law
Forces Between Multiple Charges
Questions on Forces Between Multiple Charges
Electric Field and Electric Field Lines
Questions on Electric Field
Properties of Electric Field Lines, Electrostatic Shielding
Electric Flux
Electric Dipole
The field of an Electric Dipole for Points on the Axis
The field of an Electric Dipole for points on the Equatorial Plane
Questions on Electric Dipole
Gauss Law and its First Application 
2nd and 3rd Application of Gauss Law
Questions on Gauss Law
Objective - Questions
Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Introduction - Potential due to Point Charge and System of Charges
Questions on Electrostatic Potential
Relationship between Electric Field and Electric Potential
Potential due to Electric Dipole
Equipotential Surface
Potential Energy of a System of Charges
Work Done of a Rotating Dipole
Electrostatic of Conductors
Dielectrics and Polarisation
Capacitor and Capacitance
Questions on Capacitance
Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance
Combination of Capacitors
Energy Stored In a Capacitor
Loss of Energy
Questions on Energy Stored in Capacitors
Principale of Van de Graaff Generator
Construction and Working of Van de Graaff Generator
Objective - Questions
Current Electricity
Introduction of Electric Current
Electric Current In Conductor and Some Definitions
Ohm's Law
Questions on Ohm' s Law
Drift Of Electrons and The Origin of Resistivity, Relation b/w Current and Drift Velocity
Questions on Resistivity of Various Materials
Code of Carbon
Temperature Dependence of Resistivity
Heat produced in the Resistor, Electric Power and Electric Energy
Questions on Electrical Energy and Power
Combination Of Resistors-Series and Parallel
Questions on Combination Of Resistors
Electromotive Force, Relation b/w E and V
Questions Based on emf
Cells in Series and Parallel and Problems
Kirchhoff 's Law
Questions on Kirchhoff 's Law
Wheatstone Bridge
Meter Bridge
Questions on Meterbridge
Potentiometer
Applications of Potentiometer
Questions on Potentiometer
Objective - Questions
Moving Charges and Magnetism
Introduction of Moving Charges and Magnetism
Force on Charge Particle in Electric and  Magnetic Field
Questions on Magnetic Force
Motion of Charge Particle in a Magnetic Field
Questions Based on Magnetic Field
Motion of a Charge Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Field, Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Conductor, Fleming's Left Hand Rule
Cyclotron Principle and Working
Questions Based on Cyclotron
Biot-Savart Law
Applications of Biot-Savart Law
Ampere Circuital Law and its Applications
The Solenoid and the Toroid
Questions on Solenoid and toroid
Force Between Two Parallel Currents, Definition of one Ampere
Questions on Force Between Two Parallel Currents
Torque on Current Loop
Questions on Torque on Current Loop
Magnetic Dipole Moment
The Moving Coil Galvanometer
Sensitivity of Galvanometer, Current Senstivity ,Voltage Senstivity and One Problem
Conversion of Galvanometer into Ammeter and Voltmeter
Questions on Ammeter and Voltmeter
Objective - Questions
Magnetism and Matter
Introduction of Magnetism and Matter
Properties of Bar Magnet
Magnetic Field Lines and its Properties
Torque and Potential Energy on Bar Magnet in a Uniform Magnetic Field
Magnetic Field Due to Bar Magnet
Gauss Law of Magnetism, Comparison b/w Electrostatics and Magnetism
The Earth Magnetism
Elements of The Earth Magnetism and Relationship b/w them
Questions on The Earth Magnetism
Magnetisation, Magnetic Intensity, Magnetic Susceptibility, Magnetic Induction, Magnetic Permiability and Relative Permiability
Classification of Material
Questions on Magnetic Materials
Hysterisis Loop
Permanent Magnets, Difference b/w Soft Iron and Steel
Objective - Questions
Electromagnetic Induction
Introduction of Electromagnetic Induction
The Experiments of Faraday and Henry
Magnetic Flux, Magnetic flux through a Closed Surface
Faraday's Law Of Induction and one Problem
Questions on Induced emf
Lenz's Law
Questions on Lenz Law, Fleming's Right hand Rule
Methods of Motional Electromotive Force
Questions on Motional Electromotive Force
Eddy Currents, Experimental Evidence and Applications
Self Induction, Self inductance and Inductance of a Long Solenoid
Mutual Inductance and Mutual Induction
AC Generator
Questions on AC Generator
Objective - Questions
Alternating Current
Introduction of Alternating Current
Average Value/Mean Value of Alternate Current
Root Mean Square Current
Questions on Alternating Current
AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor
AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor
AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor
Questions on Reactance
AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit
Resonance in LCR Circuit
Sharpness of Resonance and Q Factor and Problems
A.C. through LR Circuit
Questions on LCR Circuit
Questions on Resonant Circuit
Average Power in AC Circuit
Wattless Current and Choke Coil
Questions on Power in AC Circuit 
LC Oscillations Problems
Energy Stored In Inductor
Transformer
Efficiency of Transformer, Ideal Transformer
Questions on Transformer
Objective - Questions
Electromagnetic Waves
Introduction of Electromagnetic Waves
Inconsistency of Ampere's Circuital Law, Displacement Current and Ampere's-Maxwell's Law, Maxwell's Equations
Electromagnetic Waves- Definition, Properties and Transverse Nature
Hertz Experiment
Questions on Electromagnetic Waves
Electomagnetic Spectrum, Uses of E.M. Waves
Objective - Question s
Ray Optics and Optical Instrument
Introduction of Ray Optics and Optical Instruments 
Some Definitions Related to Optics
Images Formed By Spherical Mirror
Relationship Between Focal Length and Radius
Spherical Mirror Formula
Linear Magnification
Questions on Mirror Formula
Refraction Of Light, Laws of Refraction, Refractive Index and Problems
Refraction of light through Glass Slab, Expression for Lateral Shift
Refraction of light through Compound Slab and Problems
Examples of Refraction
Questions on Refraction
Total Internal Reflection, Relation b/w Critical Angle and Refractive Index
Examples of Total Internal Reflection: Total Reflecting Prisms, Optical Fibre, Mirages
Refraction by Convex and Concave Spherical Surfaces
Lens Maker Formula for Thin Lens
Image Formed By Lenses
Lens Formula for Convex and Concave Lenses
Questions on Lens Formula
Questions on Lens Maker Formula
Power of Lens, Focal length and Power of two Lenses Placed in Contact
Questions on Power of Lens
Refraction Through A Prism, Prism Formula
Questions on Prism Formula
Dispersion by a Prism, Cause of Dispersion and Rainbow
Scattering of Light(Natural Phenomena)
Human Eye: Construction, Main Parts and their functions
Defects of Vision
Questions on Defects of Vision
Simple Microscope
Compound Microscope
Refracting Type Telescope
Telescope in Normal Adjustment, Reflecting Type Telescope
Questions on Microscope Telescope
Concept of Resolving Power, Resolving Power of Compound Microscope and Telescope
Objective - Questions
Wave Optics
Introduction of Wave Optics
Wave Front, Plane Wave Front
Huygen's Wave Theory and Problems
Explanation of Refraction using Hugens Principle
Coherent Sources
Interference of Light Waves, Constructive and Destructive Interference
Questions on Interference
Young's Double Slit Experiment, Sustained Interference
Expression for Fringe Width
Sample Questions Based on Youngs double Slit Experiment
Diffraction of Light, Cause of Diffraction, Fraun-Hoffer Diffraction
Single Slit Diffraction Pattern
Differences between Interference and Diffraction, Two Conceptual Problems
Questions on Diffraction
Polarisation of Light
Methods of Polarisation: By Tourmaline Crystal and By Reflection, Brewster's Law
Questions on Brewster Law
Polaroids and Uses
Law of Malus and Problems
Questions on Law of Malus
Objective - Questions
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Introduction of Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Photoelectric Effect, Threshold Frequency, Threshold Wavelength and Work Function
Laws of Photoelectric Effect
Questions on Photoelectric Effect
Explanation of Laws of Photoelectric Effect
Experiment Study of Photoelectric Effect
Einstein Photoelectric Equation
Particle Nature of Light - The Photon
de Broglie Equation, de Broglie Wavelength of Electron
Questions on de Broglie Equation
Davisson and Germer Experiment
Objective - Questions
Atoms
Introduction of Atoms
Alpha-particle Scattering Experiment, Estimation of Size of Nucleus by It
Rutherford and Bohr's Model
Questions on Alpha-particle Scattering Experiment
Radius of nth Orbit and Energy of Electron in nth Orbit
Energy Levels of Hydrogen Atom, Rydberg Formula
Sample Questions Based on Energy in nth Orbit
Line Spectra of Hydrogen Atom
Questions on Rydberg Formula
Objective - Questions
Nuclei
Introduction of Nuclei
Composition of Nucleus, Isotopes, Isobars, Isotones
Atomic Masses, amu, Electron Volt, Relation b/w amu and MeV
Size and Density of Nucleus
Mass Defect and Binding Energy, Expression for Binding Energy, Binding Energy Curve and Its Features
Sample Questions Based on Binding Energy
Nuclear Forces, Stability of Nucleus vs Separation
Radioactivity 
Alpha and Beta and Gamma Decay
Radioactive Decay Law, Decay Constant, Half Life and Relation b/w Half Life and Decay Constant 
Activity of Radioactive Substance and Its Units
Questions on Half Life
Questions on Activity
Nuclear Fission and Fusion and their Explanation on the basis of Binding Energy
Nuclear Reactor
Objective - Questions
Semiconductor Electronics- Materials Devices and Simple Circuits
Introduction of Semi Conductor Electronics
Semiconductors and their Properties, Valence Band, Conduction Band and Energy Band Gap
Classification of Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals
Electrical Conductivity of Semiconductors, Effect of Temperature on the Conductivity of Semiconductors
Intrinsic Semiconductor
Extrinsic Semiconductor, n-Type and p-Type Semiconductors and their Energy Band Diagram
PN Junction and its Formation, Depletion Region and Potential Barrier
V-I Characteristic PN Junction, Knee Voltage
Semiconductor Diode, Forward and Reverse Biasing of PN Junction
Questions on Semiconductor Diode
Application of PN Junction Diode as a Rectifier
Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes: Zener Diode and Photo Diode
Light Emitting Diode and Solar Cell
Junction Transistor: npn and pnp Transistor
Working of Transistors
Transistor Characteristics
Transistor as Switch
Transistor as Amplifier
Current, Voltage and Power Gain  in Common Emitter Amplifer
Transistor as an Oscillator
Logic Gates
OR Gate and AND Gate
NOT Gate
Combination of Gates
Questions on Logic Gates
Objective - Questions
Communication Systems
Introduction of Communication Systems
Elements of a Communication System
Basic Terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems
Bandwidth of Signals
Propogation of Electromagnetic Waves, Ground and Sky Wave Propagation, Critical Frequency
Space Wave Propagation, Various Propagation modes for EM Waves, Relation b/w Height of Antenna and its Rrange
Questions on Propogation of Electromagnetic Waves
Modulation and its Necessity
Amplitude Modulation and Problems
Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave
Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave (Demodulation)
Objective - Questions
The Solid State
General Characteristics of Solid State
Differences between Amorphous Solids and Crystalline Solids
Intext Questions based on General Characteristics of Solids
Classification of Crystalline Solids - Molecular solids, Polar, Non-Polar and Hydrogen Bonded Molecular Solids
Ionic Solids, Metallic Solids and Covalent (Network ) Solids
Intext Questions based on Classification of Solids
Space Lattices and Unit Cell
Calculation of Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
Exercise based on Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
Closed Packed Structure - Closed packing in 1D., Closed packing in 2D, Hexagonal closed packing
Closed Packing in 3D., 3D Closed Packing- from 2D Square Closed Packing, from 2D Hexagonal Close Packing
Formula of a Compound and Number of Voids filled and Problems
Interstitial Voids, Tetrahedral and Octahedral Voids and their Characteristics 
Packing Efficiency, Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice
Packing Efficiency in hcp and ccp Structures
Packing Efficiency in Body Centered Cubic Structures
Calculations involving Unit Cell Dimensions, Relationship b/w nearest neighbor distance and edge length, Relationship b/w Radius and Edge Length
Numericals on Density 
Imperfections in Solids, Types of Imperfections
Defects in Stoichiometric Crystals- Schotty defect, Frenkel Defect and Differences b/w them
Non-Stoichiometric Defects, Metal Excess Defects
Metal Deficiency Defect, Impurity Defects
Numericals on Point Defects
Electrical Properties of Solids
Conduction of Electricity in Semiconductors, Molecular orbital theory (Band Theory) , Energy gap, Insulators
Types of Semiconductors, Doping
Magnetic Properties of Solids, Paramagnetic, Diamagnetic, Ferromagnetic and Ferrimagnetic Substances
Exercises on Magnetic Properties
Objective  - Questions
Solutions
Introduction: Solutions, Their types, Solute and Solvent
Methods of Expressing Concentration of Solutions
Concepts of Molarity and Molality
Mole Fraction and PPM
Numericals on Concentration Terms 
Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid, Factors that affect solubility of solids
Solubility of Gases in a Liquid , Factors that affect solubility of gases
Henry's law, Its significance and applications
Numericals on Solubility of Gases 
Vapour Pressure of a Liquid, Factors affecting Vapour Pressure
Vapour Pressure of a Solution and Raoults Law
Raoults Law for Binary Solutions containing Volatile Solutions and Problems
Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions
Non-Ideal Solutions , Solutions showing Positive Deviation
Non-Ideal Solutions  showing Negative Deviation
Azeotropic Mixtures
Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Masses
Numericals on Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure
Elevation in Boiling Point, Determination of the Molar Mass of the Unknown Solute
Numericals on Elevation in Boiling Point
Depression in Freezing Point
Numericals on Depression in Freezing Point
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure, Differences b/w Osmosis and Diffusion
Osmotic Pressure, Reverse Osmosis, Isotonic solution, Hypertonic and Hypotonic
Numericals on Osmotic Pressure
Abnormal Molar Masses, Dissociation and Association of Solute Molecules
Vant Hoff Factor, Degree of Dissociation and Association
Numerical on Abnormal Molar Masses 
Objective  - Questions
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical Cells 
Representation of Electrochemical Cell
Saltbridge and Its Functions
Electrode Potential and EMF of Galvanic Cells, Oxidation and Reduction Potential, Differences b/w EMF and Potential Difference
Standard Electrode Potential and its Measurement, Standard Hydrogen Electrode
Electrochemical Series and its Applications
Exercise on Electrochemical Series
Nernst Equation
Calculation of EMF of the Cell with the help of Nernst Equation
Exercise on Nernst Equation 
Concentration Cells and a Problem
Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation
Exercise on Equilibrium Constant
Gibbs Energy of Reaction and Problems
Electrolytic Conduction
Factors Affecting Electrolytic Conduction
Differences between Electrolytic and Metallic Conduction, Resistance, Resistivity and Ohm's law
Conductance, Conductivity and Molar Conductivity
Variation of Conductivity and Molar Conductivity with Concentration
Numericals on Conductivity and Molar Conductivity
Kohlrausch Law of Independent Migration of ions and its Applications
Numericals on Kohlrausch Law
Introduction of Electrolytic Cell and Electrolysis
Factors Affecting The Product of Electrolysis
Examples of Electrolysis
Differences Between Electrochemical and Electrolytic Cell
Faraday Law of Electrolysis
Numericals on Faraday Law 
Secondary Cells, Lead Storage Cell, Nickel-Cadmium Cell, 
Fuel Cell
Corrosion, Electrochemical Theory of Rusting
Factors affecting Corrosion, Prevention of Corrosion
Objective  - Questions
Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Kinetics - Introduction, Classification of Chemical Reactions on the basis of Reaction Rates
Rates of Chemical Reactions
Numericals on Rate Of Reaction
Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction
Dependence of Rate on Concentration, Rate constant and its Characteristics
Difference between Reaction Rate and Rate Constant, Rate Llaw Expression
Order of Reaction 
Units of Rate Constant 
Exercise on Rate Constant
Molecularity and Order of Reaction, Distinction b/w Order and Molecularity
Experimental Determination of Order of Reaction - Graphical Method
Exercise on Graphical Method
Initial Rate Method
Numericals on Initial Rate Method
Integrated Rate Equation - Zero Order Reaction
Half Life of Reaction
Numericals on Half Life  
Pseudo First Order Reaction and Problems
Dependence of Rate on Temperature
Concept of Activation Energy and its Significance, Activation energy of a Reversible Reaction
Arrhenius Equation and Calculation of Activation Energy
Numericals on Activation Energy 
Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions, Relation b/w Reaction Rate and Collision Frequency
Objective  - Questions
Surface Chemistry
Surface Chemistry - Introduction, Adsorption and its Example, Adsorbate and Adsorbent, Desorption, Sorption
Differences Between Adsorption and Absorption and Mechanism of Adsorption
Types of Adsorption, Differences b/w Physisorption and Chemisorption
Adsorption of Gases on Solids and the Factors Affecting it
Effect of Pressure on Adsorption, Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm
Adsorption from Solution Phase
Applications of Adsorption
Catalysis Concept
Types of Catalysis
Adsorption Theory of Hetrogeneous Catalysis, Important features of Solid Catalysts
Shape Selective Catalysis by Zeolites
Enzyme Catalysis
The Colloidal State, Dispersed Phase, Dispersion Medium, Classification of Colloids
Classification of Colloids, Comparison b/w Lyophilic and Lyophobic Colloids
Preparation of Sols, Peptization
Purification of Sols, Ultra Filtration, Dialysis, Electrodialysis
Colligative and Optical Properties of Colloidal Solutions, Tyndall Effect, Brownian Movement, Origin of Charge
Coagulation of Colloidal Solution, Hardy-Schulze Rule, Few examples of Colloidal Solutions
Emultions, Types of emultions, Identification of Emultions
Preparation of Emulsions, Emulsification, Demulsification, Applications of Emulsions
Applications of Colloids
Objective  - Questions
General Principles and processes of Isolation of Elements
Occurrence of Metals, Earth as a Source of Elements, Occurrence of Metals
Concentration of Ores, Metallurgy, Levigation, Froth- Flotation process, Magnetic Separation , Leaching or Chemical Separation
Extraction of Crude Metals from Concentrated Ore, Calcination, Roasting, Aluminothermic Reduction
Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy, Ellingham Diagram and its Characteristic Features, Reducing Nature of Coke
Extraction of Iron From its Oxides, Extraction of Copper from Cuprous oxide
Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy 
Refining/Purification : Liquation, Distillation, Electro-Refining
Zone refining, Vapour phase refining, Van Arkel Method, Mond's Process, Chromatographic Method
Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron
The p-Block Elements
Group 15 Elements : Introduction, Nitrogen Family: Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Physical Properties, Atomic Radii, Ionisation Enthalpies, Electronegativity, Metallic and Non-metallic Character, Melting and Boiling Points
Chemical Properties of Nitrogen Family, Anomalous Properties of Nitrogen
Formation of Hydrides and their Characteristics, Thermal stability, Reducing Nature, Boiling Points, Reactivity towards Oxygen, Halogens and Metals
Preparation and Properties of Dinitrogen, Uses
Preparation and Properties of Ammonia, Uses
Structure of Oxides of Nitrogen
Preparation and Properties of Nitric Acid, Brown Ring Test, Uses
Phosphorus Allotropic Forms: White, Red and Black Phosphorus
Phosphine: Preparation, Properties and Uses
Phosphorus Halides: Preparation and Properties
Oxoacids of Phosphorus: Structures and Description
Group 16 Elements : Introduction, Oxygen Family: Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Physical Properties, Elemental State, Atomic Radii, Ionisation Enthalpies, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Electronegativity
Properties and Reactivity of Group 16 Elements
Preparation and Properties of Dioxygen and Uses
Nature and Properties of Oxides
Preparation and Properties of Ozone, Structure and Uses
Sulphur Allotropic Forms
Preparation and Properties of Sulphur Dioxide, Structure and Oxoacids of Sulphur
Sulphuric Acid: Preparation and Properties,  Sulphuric Acid as a Strong Oxidising Agent
Introduction of Group 17 Elements
Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements
Oxidising Nature of Halogens, Anomalous Behaviour of Fluorine and Reactivity of Halogens towards Hydrogen, Characteristics of Hydrogen Halides
Reactivity of Group 17 Elements towards Oxygen and Metals
Preparation and Properties of Chlorine, Uses
Preparation and Properties of Hydrogen Chloride, Oxoacids of Halogen and their Relative Strength
Preperation and Properties of Interhalogen Compounds
Introduction of Group 18 Elements
Properties of Noble Gases
Compounds of Xenon
Compounds of Xenon and  Uses of Noble Gases
Objective  - Questions
The d-and f-Block Elements
Introduction and Position in the Periodic Table
Electronic Configuration of the d - Block Elements
General Properties of the Transition Elements (d - Block): Atomic Radii, Ionic radii 
General Properties of the Transition Elements (d - Block) : Metallic Character and  Melting Points
General Properties of the Transition Elements (d - Block) : Ionisation Enthalpies, Oxidation State
General Properties of the Transition Elements (d - Block) : Formation of Coloured Ions, Tendency to form Complexes, Magnetic Properties
General Properties of the Transition Elements (d - Block) : Catalytic Properties, Formation of Interstitial Compounds and Alloys
Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
Potassium Dichromate: Preparation and Properties
Structures of Chromate and Dichromate ion, Oxidising properties of Potassium Dichromate and its uses 
Potassium Permanganate: Methods of Preparation
Structure of Manganate and Permanganate ion, Uses of Potassium Permanganate
Potassium Permanganate Properties
f-Block Elements, Lanthanoids, Actinoids, General Properties of Lanthanoids
Characteristics, Consequnces and Uses of Lanthanoids
General Characteristics of Actinoids
Some Applications of d - and f - Block Elements, Uses of Actinoids
Objective  - Questions 
Coordination Compounds
Introduction of Coordination Compounds 
Coordination Compounds/Complex compounds, Differences b/w Double Salts and Coordition Compounds
Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds
Coordination Entity, Ligands and its types
Ambidentate ligands, Chelating Legands, Coordination Number, Coordination Sphere
Charge of a Complex ion, Oxidation State of the Central Metal Atom, Homoleptic and Hetroleptic Complexes
Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds 
Naming of Mononuclear Coordination Compounds, Neutral, Anionic and Cationic Complexes
Isomerism in Coordination Compounds, Ionisation and Hydrate(Solvate) Isomerism
Coordination and Linkage Isomerism
Stereoisomerism, Geometrical Isomerism, Facial-Meridional Isomerism
Optical Isomerism
Bonding in Coordination Compounds : Valance Bond Theory
Applications of Valance Bond Theory
Bonding in Metal Carbonyls, Preparation of Metal Carbonyls
Stability of Coordination Compounds, Stability Constant, Instability Constant
Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds
Objective  - Questions
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Introduction of Organic Chemistry
Introduction of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Classification of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Nomenclature of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Physical Properties of Haloarenes, Nature Of C-X Bond
Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes from Alcohols, + I Effect
Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes from Hydrocarbons , From Alkanes
Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes from Alkenes, Markovnikov's Rule, Peroxide Effect
Addition of Halogens, Finkelstein Reaction, Swarts Reaction, Preparation from Silver Salts of Acids
Methods of Preparation of Haloarenes : By direct Halogenation of Arenes, Mechanism of Electrophilic Substituition
Methods of Preparation of Haloarenes : From Diazonium Salts, Balz-Schiemann Reaction
General Properties of Organic Compounds 
Physical Properties of Haloalkanes
Physical Properties of Haloarenes
Chemical Properties of Haloalkanes : Nucleophilic Substituition Reaction
Formation of Alcohols, Ethers, Cyanides, Isocyanides, Amines, Nitro alkanes and Alkynes
Elimination Reactions/ Dehydrohalogenation, Saytzeff's Rule, Reaction with Active Materials, Formation of Grignard's Reagent
Reduction, Reaction Chart of Haloalkane
Chemical Properties of Haloarenes
Nucleophilic Substitution in Haloarenes, Effect of Substituents on Rreactivity of Haloarenes, Explanation for the Effect of NO2 Group
Electrophilic Substitution Reactions in Haloarenes, Halogenation, Nitration, Sulphonation, Alkylation and Acylation Reaction, Reaction with Metals and Sodium
Objective  - Questions  
Alcohols Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols and Phenols - Introduction and Classification 
Nomenclature of Alcohols
Nomenclature of Phenols and Isomerism in Alcohols
Preparation of Alcohols: From Haloalkanes, Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones, By Reduction of Carboxylic Acids and  Esters
Preparation of Alcohols: From Grignard's Reagent, Formaldehyde, Aldehydes, Ketones and Esters
Preparation of Alcohols: From Alkenes, Mechanism of Hydration of Alkenes, Hydroboration Oxidation Reduction
Preparation of Phenols
Physical Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
Chemical Properties of Alcohols 
Reaction with Grignard's Reagent, Acyl Chloride or Acid Anhydride, Cleavage of Carbon-Oxygen Bond
Acidic Dehydration, Mechanism of dehydration of Alcohols 
Oxidation of Alcohols, Popoff's Rule
Chemical Properties of Phenols : Acidic Character and its Explanation
Reaction of Phenol with Zinc Dust, Ammonia, Acid Chloride and Acid Anhydride, Fries Rearrangement,Schotten Baumann Reaction, Reaction with Grignard's Reagent
Electrophilic Substituition Reaction of Phenols, Bromination, Nitration, Sulphonation and Alkylation
Special Reactions of Phenols: Kolbe's Reaction, Reimer-Tiemann Reaction, Coupling Reaction and Reaction with Ferric Chloride
Classification and Nomenclature of Ethers
Isomerism in Ethers
Preparation of Ethers by Dehydration of Alcohols and Mechanism of the Reaction
Preparation of Ethers by Williamsons Synthesis Reaction and from Alkyl Halide in the presence of Dry Silver Oxide 
Objective - Questions
Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones - Introduction & Nomenclature
Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones
Isomerism in Aldehydes and Ketones
Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones: By oxidation and Catalytic dehydrogenation of Alcohols
Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones: By Ozonolysis of Alkenes and Hydrolysis of gem dihalides
Preparation of Aldehydes : From Acid Chlorides, Reduction of Alkyl cyanides, From Aromatic Hydrocarbons, From Grignard Reagent
Preparation of Ketones: From Acid Chlorides, From Alkyl Cyanides, By Friedel Craft's Acylation Reaction and From Grignard's Reagent
Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones, Structure of Carbonyl group
Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones : Nucleophilic Addition Reaction, Acid Catalysed Reaction, Relative Reactivity of Aldehydes and Ketones, Inductive Effect, Stearic Effect
Addition of Sodium Bisulphite, Reaction with Grignard's Reagent, Addition of Alcohols
Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones : Haloform Reaction
Carboxylic Acid - Introduction & Nomenclature
IUPAC Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid
Preparation of Carboxylic Acid : By Oxidation of Primary Alcohols, Aldehydes and Ketones, By Hydrolysis of Nitriles, From Grignard's Reagent
Preparation of Carboxylic Acid : By Hydrolysis of Acyl Halides , Anhydrides and Esters, By trihalogen derivatives of Hydrocarbons, From Alkyl Benzene
Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acid
Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acid : Acidic Character, Strength of Carboxyic Acids, Explanation of Acidic Strength and Effects of Substituents on it
Formation of Acid Chlorides, Esters, Amides and Acid Anhydrides
Decarboxylation, Reduction, Halogenation, Electrophilic Substitution: Bromination, Sulphonation
Objective  - Questions  
Amines
Introduction and Classification of Amines
Structure of Amines
Nomenclature of Amines 
Preparation of Amines from Alkyl Halides
Preparation of Amines from Reduction of Nitro compounds, Cyanides and Isocyanides, Ascent of Amine Series 
Preparation of Amines from Reduction of Amides, By Hoffman Bromamide Degradation Method and  Gabriel's Phthalimide Synthesis
Physical Properties of Amines
Chemical Properties of Amines, Basic Character and Basic Strength of Amines
Comparison of Basic Strength of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines, Steric Effect, Solvation Effect
Comparison of Basic Strength of Aniline and Ethylamine, Effects of Substituents on the Basic Character of Aromatic Amines, 
Reaction with Acids, Metal ions, Alkylation of Amines, Acylation Reaction 
Carbylamine Reaction, Reaction with Nitrous Acid of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines
Reaction with Aryl Sulphonyl Chloride of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines
Elecrophilic Substituition in Aromatic Amines, Nitration, Sulphonation
Diazonium Salts: Preparation , Resonating Structures and Physical Properties, Chemical Reactions of Benzene Diazonium Chloride , Sandmayer Reaction,Gattermann Reaction, Coupling Reaction 
Objective  - Questions
Biomolecules
Biomolecules, Carbohydrates and their Classification
Reducing and Non-Reducing Sugars, Monosaccharides, Preparation, Structure and Properties of Glucose
Properties of Glucose, D and L Designations 
Cyclic Structure of D- Glucose, Mutarotation
Fructose, Its structure, Disaccharides, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
Polysaccharides: Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen, Important functions of Carbohydrates
Proteins, Amino Acids and their Classification, Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids
Properties and Structure of α-amino acids, Peptides and Proteins
Classification of Proteins, Fibrous and Globular Proteins and Differences b/w them
Structure of Proteins: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structures of Proteins
Denaturation of Proteins
Vitamins and Classification of Vitamins
Nucleic Acids, DNA and RNA, Structures of Nucleic Acids, Formation of Dinucleotide, Biological Functions of Nucleic Acid
Enzymes, Properties and Applications of Enzymes
Objective  - Questions
Polymers
Introduction and Classification of Polymers 
Classification of Polymers
Types of Polymerisation Reaction: Mechanism of Free Radical Addition Polymerisation Reaction
Preparation of some important Addition Polymers: Polythene and its types and their uses
Condensation Polymers, Polyesters, Polyamides, Formaldehyde Resins, Melamine -formaldehyde resins and their uses
Natural Rubber, Vulcanisation of Rubber, Differences b/w Natural and Vulcanised Rubber, Synthetic Rubber
Biodegradable Ploymers
Objective  - Questions  
Chemistry in Everyday life
Introduction and Classification of Drugs and Medicines
Antihistamines, Tranquillizers, Antimicribials, Antibiotics, Antifertility Drugs
Therapeutic Action of Different Drugs
Chemicals in Food
Objective  - Questions
Relations and Functions
Types of Relations and Functions
Composition Functions
Invertible Functions and its Examples
Binary Operations
Problems
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Basic Concepts Introduction (Solving Trigonometery Equation)
Iinverse Trigonometery Equation 
Introduction - Basic Concept (Graph)
Introduction - Basic Concept (Domain Range)
Introduction - Properties of Inverse Trignometeric Function
Problems
Matrices
Introduction of Matrix, Order of Matrix
Type of Matrices, Equality of Matrices
Operation on Matrices, Properties of Addition of Matrix
Multiplication of matrix, Properties of Multiplication of Matrix
Algebra of matrices, Multiplication of Matrix by Scalar, Properties of Addition of Matrices, Example
Transpose of a Matrix
Elementary operation (Transformation ) of Matrix, Invertible Matrices
Inverse of a Matrix by Elemenry Operation 
Problems
Determinants
Inroduction - Determinants Expansion
Properties of Determinants
Area of triangle and its Problems
Minors and Cofacors
Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
Applications of Determinants and Matrices
Problems
Continuity and Differentiability
Introduction on Continuity
Algebra of Continuous Functions: Continuity Theorem
Logarithmic functions
Exponential Function and Series 
Algebra of Derivatives
Derivative of Composite Functions (chain rule)
Logarithmic Differentiation
Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms, Differentiation of a Function to Another Function
Differentiation of a Function to Another Function examples
Second Order Derivative and examples
Rolle's Theorem
Mean Value Theorem
Problems
Application of Derivatives
Rate of Change of Quantities and Examples
Tangents and Normals, Examples, Approximations and Problems
Introduction  on Maxima and Minama, absolute max and min, local max and min
Maxima and Minima Statement Type
Problems
Integrals
Integration as an Inverse Process of Differentiation, Antiderivative
Examples on Antiderivative
Integration by Substitution and Examples
Integration using Trignometric Identities
Integrals of Some Particular Functions and its Problems
Integration by Partial Fractions and its Problems
Integration by Parts and its Problems
Integrals of Some More Types and Problems
Definite Integral and its Problems
Second Fundamental Theorem and Examples
Some Properties of Definite Integrals and its Problems
Integral of some Special Rational Algebraic Functions
Problems
Application of Integrals
Area under Simple Curves: Area of the Region bounded by Line and Circle, a Line and Parabola, a Line and an Ellipse
Problems
Differential Equations
Some Basic Concepts: Order of Differential Equation, Degree of a Differential Equation
General and Particular Solutionsof a Differential Equation and examples 
Homogeneous Differential Equations and Examples
Method of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations
Problems
Vector Algebra
Scalars and vectors
Direction Cosines, Direction Ratios, Types of Vectors
Addition of Vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram of Vectors Addition
Properties of Vector Addition
Components of a Vector, Vector joining two Points, Section Formula
Product of two Vector: Scalar product of two Vectors, Projection of a Vector on a Line
Vector Product of two Vectors
problems
Three Dimensional Geometry
Introduction, section formula, mid point formula, centeroid of triangle
Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a line
Equation of a Line in Space
Equation of a Line in Space continued
 Distance between Parrallel Lines
 Distance between Skew Lines
Introduction Plane
Introduction Plane continued, coplanarity of two lines
Introduction Plane continued, angle between two planes
Problems
Linear Programming
Introduction: Mathematical Formulation of the Problem, Graphical Method of Solving Linear Programming Problems
Problems
Probability
Probability as a Measure of uncertainty of an event in a random experiment.
Event, Types of event, Mutually exclusive and Exhaustic events
Exhaustive events and examples
Conditional probability and its Problems
Multiplication Theorem on Probability, independent events
Total Probability, Bayes' Theorem
Random Variables and its Probability Distributions, mean of a random variable, variance and standard deviation
Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution
Problems
Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, Types and Features
Asexual Reproduction
Types of Asexual Reproduction
Vegetative Propagation
Sexual Reproduction, Phases of Reproduction
Pre-fertilization Events
Fertilization
Post-fertilization Events 
Objective Questions
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Structure of flower, Male reproductive organ in flower, Structure of microspoangium, Microsporogenesis, Structure of pollen grains, pollen allergy, pollen products, pollen viability
Female reproductive part of flower, types of ovules, formation of embryo sac
Pollination, self pollination, advantages and disadvantages of self pollination, cross pollination, anemophily, hydrophily
Zoophily, entomophily, ornithophily, chiropterophily, malacophily
Outbreeding devices, advantages of cross pollination, pollen-pistill interaction, artificial hybridization in plants, double fertilization
Post-fertilization: endosperm formation, types of endosperm development, embryogeny
Seed formation, vaibility of seeds, importance of seeds, fruit formation, apomixis and types of apomictic development
Objective Questions
Human Reproduction
Process of human reproduction
Primary sex organs, secondary sex organs
Intratesticular genital duct system, ejaculatory ducts, male copulatory organ
Male accessory glands
Female Reproductive System and its parts
Female external genitalia, mammary glands, composition of human milk
Gametogenesis
Spermiogenesis, structure of spermatozoan , gonadotropin releasing hormone
Oogenesis
Structure of Ovum, GnRH
Menstrual Cycle
Process of Fertilization, determination of sex
Pregnancy and Embryonic Development: embryonic devlopment, functions of placenta
Gastrulation, extra embryonic membranes, formation of organogenesis
Parturition and Lactation
Objective Questions
Reproductive Health
Introduction, significance and measures to improve Reproductive Health
Reasons for population explosion, malthus theory of human population growth, consequences of over population, measures to overcome over population
Introduction, methods of contraception
Injectable contraceptives, surgical methods
Intrauterine devices, oral contraceptives
Medical termination of pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease
Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, genital warts
Genital herpes, chancroid, syphilis, hepatitis B, AIDS
Infertility and its types, assisted reproductive technologies
Objective Questions
Principles of Inheritance and Variations
Introduction, mendel's experiment, representation of genes
Law of dominance
Postulates of law of domonance, law of segregation, incomplete dominance
Inheritence of two genes, law of independent assortment
Chromosomal theory of inheritance, sex linked inheritance
Linkage and recombination, types of linkage, postulates of chromosomes theory of linkage, crossing over
Sex Determination, types of sex chromosomes
Mutation
Gene mutation in autosomes, recessively inherited and dominantly traits, genetic disorders due to chromosomal abnormalities
Pedigree analysis and its reasons, different inheritance pattern, importance features of sex linked inheritance and dominant genes, human genetic disorders
Klinefelter syndrome, turner syndrome, super males and super females
Objective Questions
Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Nature and properties of genetic material, Biochemical nature
Salient features of double helix, Structure of DNA
Packaging of DNA Helix
Search for Genetic Material, Biochemical nature of transforming principle
Hershey-chase experiment, Properties of genetic material, Features of DNA, RNA world
Structure and Types of RNA
Replication
Mechanism of Replication
Transcription, Transcription unit, Gene
Process of Transcription 
Genetic Code and its salient features
Mutation and Genetic Code
Translation, Translation unit, Mechanism of Translation
Regulation of Gene Expression, Operon system
Repressible Operon System
Human Genome Project, Goals of HGP, Sequence annotation, Salient features of human genome, Applications and future challenges
DNA Finger Printing and Its applications
Objective Questions
Evolution
Cosmic evolution, nebular hypothesis
Experimental evidence of evolution, formation of complex organic molecule
Theory of special creation, panspermia, spontaneous generation, biogenesis
Modern theory of evolution, chemical evolution
Comparative anatomy and morphology, homologous and analogous organs
Embryological evidence
Industrial Mechanism, evolution-anthropogenic action
Adaptive Radiation, convergent evolution
Biological Evolution, theory of special creation
Propositions of lamarckism, criticism of lamarckism, neo-lamarckism
Theory of natural selection, postulates of natural selection
Mutation theory, modern synthetic theory
Hardy-Weinberg Principle, types of natural selection
Brief Account of Evolution: palaentological evidence, geological time scale, evolution of plants
Evolution of man, similarity between apes and humans, evolutionary history of humans
Objective Questions
Human Health and Diseases
Health , Disease and its types
Disease agent, Transmission of disease, how pathogen cause disease
Common cold, Dengue, Chikungunya, Polio
Malaria
Ascariasis, Elephantiasis
Ringworm
Typhoid, Pneumonia, Bacterial Dysentery, Plague, Diptheria
Immunity, first line of defence
Second line of defence (Innate Immunity)
Third line of defence(Acquired  Immunity)
Active and Passive Immunity, vaccination and immunization, types of vaccines
Structure of antibody and antibody action
T-lymphocytes and its features
Structure of antigen, lymphoid organs
Allergies, auto immunity
AIDS, symptoms and treatment
Cancer, features of cancer cells, symptoms of cancer cells, different types of cancer cells
Causes of cancer, cancer detection and diagnosis
Drugs (opioids)
Drugs (cocaine)
Tobacco addiction, alcohol addiction, effects of drugs and alcohol abuse
Objective Questions
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Animal Husbandry, dairy farm management, poultry farm management
Animal breeding and its types, controlled breeding experiments, multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology
BeeKeeping, fisheries
Plant breeding, modern plant breeding, steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop
Wheat, rice, sugarcane, maize and millets
Plant breeding for disease resistance, mutation breeding
Plant breeding for developing resistance to insect pests, plant breeding for improved food quality
Single Cell Protein
Tissue culture, basic technique of plant tissue culture, applications of tissue culture technique
Somatic hybridization, meristem culture, anther and pollen culture
Objective Questions
Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes, Microbes in household products
Microbes in industrial products, Fermented beverages, Antibiotics
Chemicals, Enzymes and other bioactive molecules
Microbes in Sewage Treatment
Microbes in production of biogas, Biogas plant, Advantages
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
Microbes as Biofertilizers
Objective Questions
Biotechnology Principles and Processes
Traditional, modern and medical biotechnology
Principles of Biotechnology
Tools for recombinant DNA technology, restriction enzymes, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase
Steps in formation of rDNA
Gel electrophoresis, staining
Vectors for cloning genes in plants and animals
Bacteriophages, plasmid, features of cloning vectors
Selection of recombinant from non-recombinant, insertional inactivation of enzymes
Process of transformation, vector-less method
Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
Amplification of Gene of Interest Using PCR
Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product, downstream processing
Objective Questions
Biotechnology and its Applications
Critical research areas of biotechnology, biotechnology applications in agriculture
Genitically modified organisms, advantages of genetic modifications
Bt Cotton, Bt toxins
Pest Resistant Plants
Hirudin and Hazards of GMO
Transgenic microbes, biotechnology applications in medicines
Gene therapy, clinical gene therapy
Molecular diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, molecular probes, ELISA Test
Transgenic animals, formation and advantages of transgenic animals
Ethical issues, bioethics, biopatent, biopiracy
Objective Questions
Organisms and Population
Organization, levels of biological organization
Organisms and its environment, biomes, environmental factors
Water, water as a resource, habitat and condition
Light, effects of light on plants and animals
Soil, weathering, soil composition, soil water and soil air
Responses to abiotic factors, regulate, conform, migrate, suspend
Adaptation in Plants
Adaptation in Animals
Population Attributes, Population characterstics
Age structure, age pyramids
Population growth, growth models
Logistic growth, life history variation
Population interaction, predation, biological control of weeds and pests
Commensalism, protocooperation, ammensalism
Mutualism
Objective Questions
Ecosystem
Ecosystem and its types, homeostasis or balance of nature
Ecosystem structure
Features and functions of ecosystem structure
Productivity and its types, different ecosystem in respect of producitivity
Decompostion, humification and mineralisation, factors affecting decompostion
Energy flow, net primary productivity
Food chain, food web
Ecological pyramids, pyramid of numbers
Pyramid of biomass, pyramid of energy, limitations of ecological pyramid
Ecological succession and its types, characteristics of ecological succession
Hydrarch succession, different seral stages
Xerach succession, importance of biotic succession
Nutrient cycling, characterstics of nutrient cycling, types of biogeochemical cycles, components of nutrient cycling
Ecosystem- Carbon Cycle
Ecosystem- Phosphorus Cycle
Objective Questions
Biodiversity and Conservation
Genetic diversity, species diversity, ecological diversity
Magnitude of biodiversity, biodiversity in india
Pattern of biodivesrisity, species-area relationship
Loss of biodiversity, types of extinction, effects of loss of biodiversity
Causes of Biodiversity Loss
Biodiversity Conservation
How do we conserve Biodiversity and In Situ Conservation
Ex Situ Conservation, biodiversity conservation in india
Objective Questions
Environmental Issues
Pollution, kinds of pollution, pollutant
Air pollution, causes of air pollution, primary air pollutants, effects of air pollution
Gaseous primary pollutants
Secondary air pollutants
Control of air pollution, control of particulate matter, control of gaseous pollutants
Automobile pollution, controlling vehicular air pollution: a case study of delhi, advantages of CNG, noise pollution and its sources, effects and controls of noise pollution
Water pollution and its types, sources of water pollution, biodegradation
Eutrophication, biomagnification
Industrial waste water, thermal pollution, oils spills, a case study of integrated waste water treatment
Soil pollution, solid wastes, disposal of solid wastes
Agrochemical and its effects, radioactive wastes
Ozone Depletion In The Stratosphere
Deforestation, reasons for the deforestation, effects of deforestation
Stratigies to prevent deforestation and desertification, stratigies for forest conservation
Objective Questions
Flamingo - Prose
The Last Lesson
Lost Spring
Deep Water
The Rattrap
Indigo
Poets and Pancakes
The Interview-Christopher Silvester
The Interview-An Interview with umberto Eco 68
Going Places
Flamingo - Poetry
My Mother at Sixty-Six
An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum
Keeping Quiet
A thing of Beauty
A Roadside Stand
Aunt Jennifers Tigers
Vistas
The Third Level
The Tiger King
Journey to the End of the Earth
The Enemy
Should Wizard hit Mommy
On the Face of It
Evans Tries an O-level
Memories of Childhood-The Cutting of My Long Hair Zitkala-Sa
Memories of Childhood-We Too are Human Beings- Bama
Writing Skills
Article Writing 
Classified Writing
Invitation
Letter Writing
Note Making
Notice 
Poster Writing 
Report Writing
Short Writing Skills
Accounting for Not-for-profit Organisations
Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit Organisation
Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
Receipt and Payment Account
Income and Expenditure Account
Balance Sheet
Income and Expenditure Account based on Trial Balance
Accounting for Partnership Firms
Nature of Partnership
Partnership Deed
Special Aspects of Partnership Accounts
Maintenance of Capital Accounts of Partners
Distribution of Profit among Partners
Past Adjustments
Modes of Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm
Reconstitution of Partnership : Admission of a Partner 
Admission of a New Partner
New Profit Sharing Ratio
Sacrificing Ratio
Goodwill
Adjustment for Accumulated Profits and Losses
Revaluation of Assets and Reassessment of Liabilities
Adjustment of Capitals
Change in Profit Sharing Ratio among the Existing Partners
Reconstitution of Partnership : Retirement/Death of a Partner
Gaining Ratio
Treatment of Goodwill
Adjustment for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities
Adjustment of Accumulated Profits and Losses
Disposal of Amount Due to Retiring Partner
Adjustment of Partners Capital
Death of a Partner
Dissolution of a Partnership Firm
Dissolution of Partnership
Dissolution of a Firm
Settlement of Accounts
Accounting Treatment
Accounting for Share Capital
Features of a Company
Kinds of a Company
Share Capital of a Company
Nature and Classes of Shares
Issue of Shares
Accounting Treatment
Forfeiture of Shares
Issue and Redemption of Debentures
Meaning of Debentures
Distinction between Shares and Debentures
Types of Debentures
Issue of Debentures
Over Subscription
Issue of Debentures for Consideration other than Cash
Issue of Debentures as a Collateral Security
Terms of Issue of Debentures
Interest on Debentures
Writing off Discount/Loss on Issue of Debentures
Redemption of Debentures
Redemption by Payment in Lump Sum
Redemption by Purchase in Open Market
Redemption by Conversion
Sinking Fund Method
Financial Statements of a Company
Meaning of Financial Statements
Nature of Financial Statements
Objectives of Financial Statements
Types of Financial Statements
Form and Contents of Income Statement
Form and Contents of Balance Sheet
Uses and Importance of Financial Statements
Limitations of Financial Statements
Analysis of Financial Statements
Meaning of Financial Analysis
Significance of Financial Analysis
Objectives of Financial Analysis
Tools of Financial Analysis
Comparative Statements
Common Size Statement
Trend Analysis
Limitations of Financial Analysis
Accounting Ratios
Meaning of Accounting Ratios
Objectives of Ratio Analysis
Advantages of Ratio Analysis
Limitations of Ratio Analysis
Types of Ratios
Liquidity Ratios
Solvency Ratios
Activity (or Turnover) Ratios
Profitability Ratios
Cash Flow Statement
Nature of Cash Flow Statement
Benefits of Cash Flow Statement
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash Flows
Classification of Activities for the Preparation of Cash Flow Statement
Ascertaining Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Ascertainment of cash flow from investing and Financing Activities
Preparation of Cash Flow Statement
Project Work in Accounting
Introduction: Specific Problem-Accounting Ratio
Specific Problem-Cash Flow Statement
Comprehensive pProblem

OUR RESULTS

Abhilash AIR-29, IIT-JEE’2010
Vaibhav Satavan AIR-62, IIT-JEE’2010
Harshit Sihara AIR-2, AIEEE;AIR-97, IIT-JEE’2010
Smriti Irani AIR 584, IIT-JEE’2010
Nitika 36th Rank, DPMT
Harshit Sihara AIR-2, AIEEE’2010;AIR-97, IIT-JEE’2010
Srinidhi K VAIR-871, IIT-JEE’2010;State rank-22, AIEEE’2010
Nikhil 75th Rank,DPMT’2010
Apeksha Nimbadia PCM-95% Class XII, Birla Vidya Niketan, Delhi
Maniya Saini 87% Class XII, Army Public School, Gurdaspur, Punjab
Upama Mittal 90% Class XII, DPS, Mathura Road, Delhi
Shwetabh P Pranwit Class XII, Don Bosco School, Delhi 90.2%
Nirmal Roul Class XII-92%
Hardeek Kambli Class XII-91%

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Maniya Saini, 87% Class XII, Army Public School, Gurdaspur, Punjab
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Upama Mittal, 90% Class XII, DPS, Mathura Road, Delhi
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Digvijay Singh Pangti,Class XII
Mount Carmel School, Delhi 90.2%

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Shwetabh P Pranwit, Class XII
Don Bosco School, Delhi 90.2%

"Now I no more waste time to travel to my tuition classes. Teacher is at my home and I pay less than 1/10th of my tuition fees. Thank you TopChalks."
Homashish Bose, Class XII
Tagore International School, Delhi 87.8%

" I was afraid to ask questions in class which was affecting my results. TopChalks gave me my personal tutor for all day. I am no more scared and scored well too."
Neelam Aggarwal, Class XII, Kulachi Hansraj School, Shastri Nagar 87.4%
" TopChalks gave me what I wanted-freedom to study the way I want."
Shubham Chirani, Class XII, DPS R K Puram, Delhi, 85.4%
" I regret I did not have TopChalks during my Class X exams, I scored only 64%. But this year TopChalks teachers has done wonders for me and I scored 90+% in XII boards."
Nirmal Roul, Class XII-92%
" TopChalks helped me ease the XII boards’ pressure. And as a result I score better."
Hardeek Kambli, Class XII-91%
" TopChalks material is highly beneficial, easy to understand and satisfies the needs of students of Class X, XI and XII."
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Tenughat, Bokaro
" The feedback received of TopChalks from students is excellent. The staff, student and parent community is expressing heartiest gratitude for choosing JNV, Paota for the pilot project program in an endeavor of achieving academic excellence"
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Paota, Rajasthan
" The feedback received from the students is excellent and the program is highly appreciated. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh